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using curriculum based measurement for progress monitoring in math

Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress Monitoring in Math

Todd Busch

Tracey Hall

Pamela Stecker

progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • Progress monitoring (PM) is conducted frequently and designed to:
    • Estimate rates of student improvement.
    • Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress.
    • Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for problem learners.
what is the difference between traditional assessments and progress monitoring
What Is the Difference Between Traditional Assessments and Progress Monitoring?
  • Traditional Assessments:
    • Lengthy tests.
    • Not administered on a regular basis.
    • Teachers do not receive immediate feedback.
    • Student scores are based on national scores and averages and a teacher’s classroom may differ tremendously from the national student sample.
what is the difference between traditional assessments and progress monitoring4
What Is the Difference Between Traditional Assessments and Progress Monitoring?
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is one type of PM.
    • CBM provides an easy and quick method for gathering student progress.
    • Teachers can analyze student scores and adjust student goals and instructional programs.
    • Student data can be compared to teacher’s classroom or school district data.
curriculum based assessment
Curriculum-Based Assessment
  • Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA):
    • Measurement materials are aligned with school curriculum.
    • Measurement is frequent.
    • Assessment information is used to formulate instructional decisions.
  • CBM is one type of CBA.
progress monitoring6
Progress Monitoring
  • Teachers assess students’ academic performance using brief measures on a frequent basis.
  • The main purposes are to:
    • Describe the rate of response to instruction.
    • Build more effective programs.
focus of this presentation
Focus of This Presentation

Curriculum-Based Measurement

The scientifically validated form of progress monitoring.

teachers use curriculum based measurement to
Teachers Use Curriculum-Based Measurement To . . .
  • Describe academic competence at a single point in time.
  • Quantify the rate at which students develop academic competence over time.
  • Build more effective programs to increase student achievement.
curriculum based measurement
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • The result of 30 years of research
  • Used across the country
  • Demonstrates strong reliability, validity, and instructional utility
research shows
Research Shows . . .
  • CBM produces accurate, meaningful information about students’ academic levels and their rates of improvement.
  • CBM is sensitive to student improvement.
  • CBM corresponds well with high-stakes tests.
  • When teachers use CBM to inform their instructional decisions, students achieve better.
most progress monitoring mastery measurement

Most Progress Monitoring: Mastery Measurement

Curriculum-Based Measurement is NOT

Mastery Measurement

mastery measurement tracks mastery of short term instructional objectives
Mastery Measurement: Tracks Mastery of Short-Term Instructional Objectives
  • To implement Mastery Measurement, the teacher:
    • Determines the sequence of skills in an instructional hierarchy.
    • Develops, for each skill, a criterion-referenced test.
hypothetical fourth grade math computation curriculum
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum

1. Multidigit addition with regrouping

2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping

3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine

4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number

6. Division facts, divisors to nine

7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number

9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators

10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

mastery of multidigit addition
Mastery of Multidigit Addition

Multidigit Subtraction

Multidigit Addition

10

8

6

in 5 minutes

Number of digits correct

4

2

0

4

8

10

12

14

6

2

WEEKS

hypothetical fourth grade math computation curriculum16
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum

1. Multidigit addition with regrouping

2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping

3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine

4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number

6. Division facts, divisors to nine

7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number

9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators

10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

multidigit subtraction mastery test
Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Test

Date:

Name:

Subtracting

6

5

2

1

5

4

2

9

8

4

5

5

6

7

8

2

7

3

2

1

3

7

5

6

3

4

7

5

6

9

3

7

3

9

1

5

6

8

2

6

4

2

2

3

4

8

4

2

4

1

5

4

3

2

1

9

4

2

5

2

9

4

2

6

8

5

4

8

7

4

mastery of multidigit addition and subtraction
Mastery of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction

Multidigit Subtraction

Multidigit Subtraction

Multiplication

Multiplication

Multidigit

Multidigit

10

10

Facts

Facts

Addition

Addition

8

8

6

6

Number of problems correct

in 5 minutes

in 5 minutes

Number of digits correct

4

4

2

2

0

0

4

4

8

8

10

10

12

12

14

14

6

6

2

2

WEEKS

WEEKS

problems with mastery measurement
Problems with Mastery Measurement
  • Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical.
  • Performance on single-skill assessments can be misleading.
  • Assessment does not reflect maintenance or generalization.
  • Assessment is designed by teachers or sold with textbooks, with unknown reliability and validity.
  • Number of objectives mastered does not relate well to performance on high-stakes tests.
curriculum based measurement was designed to address these problems
Curriculum-Based Measurement Was Designed to Address These Problems

An Example of Curriculum-Based Measurement:

Math Computation

hypothetical fourth grade math computation curriculum21
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum

1. Multidigit addition with regrouping

2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping

3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine

4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number

6. Division facts, divisors to nine

7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number

8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number

9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators

10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

slide22
Random numerals within problems
  • Random placement of problem types on page
slide23

Computation 4

Sheet #2

Password: AIR

Name:

Date:

A

B

C

D

E

)

5

5

2

2

8

8

5

5

2

2

9

)

8

2

8

5

9

2

4

4

7

2

+

+

6

6

4

4

7

7

0

0

8

8

4

3

0

4

x

0

9

0

+

J

F

G

H

I

)

3

5

4

7

2

1

6

3

0

=

x

7

4

x

x

3

3

5

9

K

L

M

N

O

4

8

3

2

)

)

5

6

5

3

1

6

3

0

-

=

7

x

x

2

3

6

P

Q

S

T

R

1

0

7

)

4

1

6

5

3

2

9

6

+

=

3

x

4

4

1

1

1

1

x

2

U

V

W

X

Y

1

5

0

4

1

1

3

0

)

9

8

1

4

+

6

=

1

4

4

1

)

5

1

0

2

7

x

  • Random numerals within problems
  • Random placement of problem types on page
sampling performance on year long curriculum for each curriculum based measurement
Sampling Performance on Year-Long Curriculum for Each Curriculum-Based Measurement . . .
  • Avoids the need to specify a skills hierarchy.
  • Avoids single-skill tests.
  • Automatically assesses maintenance/generalization.
  • Permits standardized procedures for sampling the curriculum, with known reliability and validity.
  • SO THAT: CBM scores relate well to performance on high-stakes tests.
curriculum based measurement s two methods for representing year long performance
Curriculum-Based Measurement’s Two Methods for Representing Year-Long Performance

Method 1:

  • Systematically sample items from the annual curriculum (illustrated in Math CBM, just presented).

Method 2:

  • Identify a global behavior that simultaneously requires the many skills taught in the annual curriculum (illustrated in Reading CBM, presented next).
hypothetical second grade reading curriculum
Hypothetical Second Grade Reading Curriculum
  • Phonics
    • CVC patterns
    • CVCe patterns
    • CVVC patterns
  • Sight Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
    • Identification of who/what/when/where
    • Identification of main idea
    • Sequence of events
  • Fluency
second grade reading curriculum based measurement
Second Grade Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Each week, every student reads aloud from a second grade passage for 1 minute.
  • Each week’s passage is the same difficulty.
  • As a student reads, the teacher marks the errors.
  • Count number of words read correctly.
  • Graph scores.
curriculum based measurement31
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Not interested in making kids read faster.
  • Interested in kids becoming better readers.
  • The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading competence.
  • Students who score high on CBMs are better:
    • Decoders
    • At sight vocabulary
    • Comprehenders
  • Correlates highly with high-stakes tests.
what we look for in curriculum based measurement
What We Look for in Curriculum-Based Measurement

Increasing Scores:

  • Student is becoming a better reader.

Flat Scores:

  • Student is not profiting from instruction and requires a change in the instructional program.
sarah s progress on words read correctly
Sarah’s Progress on Words Read Correctly

Sarah Smith

Reading 2

180

160

140

120

100

Words Read Correctly

80

60

40

20

0

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

jessica s progress on words read correctly
Jessica’s Progress on Words Read Correctly

Jessica Jones

Reading 2

180

160

140

120

100

Words Read Correctly

80

60

40

20

0

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

reading curriculum based measurement
Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Kindergarten: Letter sound fluency
  • First Grade: Word identification fluency
  • Grades 1–3: Passage reading fluency
  • Grades 1–6: Maze fluency
kindergarten letter sound fluency
KindergartenLetter Sound Fluency

p U z L y

  • Teacher: Say the sound that goes with each letter.
  • Time: 1 minute

i t R e w

O a s d f

v g j S h

k m n b V

Y E i c x

first grade word identification fluency
First GradeWord Identification Fluency
  • Teacher: Read these words.
  • Time: 1 minute
grades 1 3 passage reading fluency
Grades 1–3 Passage Reading Fluency
  • Number of words read aloud correctly in 1 minute on end-of-year passages.
grades 1 6 maze fluency
Grades 1–6 Maze Fluency
  • Number of words replaced correctly in 2.5 minutes on end-of-year passages from which every seventh word has been deleted and replaced with three choices.
donald s progress on words selected correctly for curriculum based measurement maze task
Donald’s Progress on Words Selected Correctly for Curriculum-Based Measurement Maze Task
curriculum based measurement44
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM is distinctive.
    • Each CBM test is of equivalent difficulty.
      • Samples the year-long curriculum.
    • CBM is highly prescriptive and standardized.
      • Reliable and valid scores.
the basics of curriculum based measurement
The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM monitors student progress throughout the school year.
  • Students are given reading probes at regular intervals.
    • Weekly, biweekly, monthly
  • Teachers use student data to quantify short- and long-term goals that will meet end-of-year goals.
the basics of curriculum based measurement46
The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM tests are brief and easy to administer.
  • All tests are different, but assess the same skills and difficulty level.
  • CBM scores are graphed for teachers to use to make decisions about instructional programs and teaching methods for each student.
curriculum based measurement research
Curriculum-Based Measurement Research
  • CBM research has been conducted over the past 30 years.
  • Research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making:
    • Students learn more.
    • Teacher decision making improves.
    • Students are more aware of their performance.
steps to conducting curriculum based measurements
Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements

Step 1: How to Place Students in aMath Curriculum-BasedMeasurement Task forProgress Monitoring

Step 2: How to Identify the Level ofMaterial for Monitoring Progress

Step 3: How to Administer and ScoreMath Curriculum-BasedMeasurement Probes

Step 4: How to Graph Scores

steps to conducting curriculum based measurements49
Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements

Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rulesto Graphed Scores to KnowWhen to Revise Programsand Increase Goals

Step 7: How to Use the Curriculum-Based MeasurementDatabase Qualitatively toDescribe Students’ Strengthsand Weaknesses

step 1 how to place students in a math curriculum based measurement task for progress monitoring
Step 1: How to Place Students in a Math Curriculum-Based Measurement Task for Progress Monitoring
  • Grades 1–6:
    • Computation
  • Grades 2–6:
    • Concepts and Applications
  • Kindergarten and first grade:
    • Number Identification
    • Quantity Discrimination
    • Missing Number
step 2 how to identify the level of material for monitoring progress
Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Monitoring Progress
  • Generally, students use the CBM materials prepared for their grade level.
  • However, some students may need to use probes from a different grade level if they are well below grade-level expectations.
step 2 how to identify the level of material for monitoring progress52
Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Monitoring Progress
  • To find the appropriate CBM level:
    • Determine the grade-level probe at which you expect the student to perform in math competently by year’s end.

OR

    • On two separate days, administer a CBM test (either Computation or Concepts and Applications) at the grade level lower than the student’s grade-appropriate level. Use the correct time limit for the test at the lower grade level, and score the tests according to the directions.
      • If the student’s average score is between 10 and 15 digits or blanks, then use this lower grade-level test.
      • If the student’s average score is less than 10 digits or blanks, move down one more grade level or stay at the original lower grade and repeat this procedure.
      • If the average score is greater than 15 digits or blanks, reconsider grade-appropriate material.
step 3 how to administer and score math curriculum based measurement probes
Step 3: How to Administer and Score Math Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes
  • Students answer math problems.
  • Teacher grades math probe.
  • The number of digits correct, problems correct, or blanks correct is calculated and graphed on student graph.
computation
Computation
  • For students in grades 1–6.
  • Student is presented with 25 computation problems representing the year-long, grade-level math curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit varies for each grade).
  • Teacher grades test after student finishes.
computation55
Computation

Student Copy of a First Grade Computation Test

computation57
Computation
  • Length of test varies by grade.
computation58
Computation
  • Students receive 1 point for each problem answered correctly.
  • Computation tests can also be scored by awarding 1 point for each digit answered correctly.
  • The number of digits correct within the time limit is the student’s score.
computation59
Computation

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

Correct Digits: Evaluate Each Numeral in Every Answer

4507

4507

4507

2146

2146

2146

2

61

4

2361

2

1

44

3 correct

4 correct

2 correct

digits

digits

digits

computation60
Computation

Scoring Different Operations

Examples:

23

8 184

16

24

24

0

22

x 43

66

880

946

4

1

1

  • 158
  • 29
  • 129

18

+16

34

3 correct digits

2 correct digits

2 correct digits

3 correct digits

computation61
Computation

Division Problems with Remainders

  • When giving directions, tell students to write answers to division problems using R for remainders when appropriate.
  • Although the first part of the quotient is scored from left to right (just like the student moves when working the problem), score the remainder from right to left (because student would likely subtract to calculate remainder).
computation62
Computation

Scoring Examples: Division with Remainders

Correct Answer

Student

s Answer

4 0 3 R 5 2

4 3 R 5

(1 correct digit)

ü

2 3 R 1 5

4 3 R 5

ü

ü

(2 correct digits)

computation63
Computation

Scoring Decimals and Fractions

  • Decimals: Start at the decimal point and work outward in both directions.
  • Fractions: Score right to left for each portion of the answer. Evaluate digits correct in the whole number part, numerator, and denominator. then add digits together.
    • When giving directions, be sure to tell students to reduce fractions to lowest terms.
computation64
Computation

Scoring Examples: Decimals

computation65
Computation

Correct Answer

Student

s Answer

6

7 / 1 2

6

8 / 1 1

(2 correct digits)

ü

ü

5

1 / 2

5

6 / 1 2

(2 correct digits)

ü

ü

Scoring Examples: Fractions

computation66
Computation

Samantha’s

Computation

Test

  • Fifteen problems attempted.
  • Two problems skipped.
  • Two problems incorrect.
  • Samantha’s score is 13 problems.
  • However, Samantha’s correct digit score is 49.
computation67
Computation

Sixth Grade

Computation

Test

  • Let’s practice.
computation68
Computation

Answer Key

  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in first row.
  • Possible score of 23 digits correct in the second row.
  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in the third row.
  • Possible score of 18 digits correct in the fourth row.
  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in the fifth row.
  • Total possible digits on this probe: 104.
concepts and applications
Concepts and Applications
  • For students in grades 2–6.
  • Student is presented with 18–25 Concepts and Applications problems representing the year-long grade-level math curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit varies by grade).
  • Teacher grades test after student finishes.
concepts and applications70
Concepts and Applications

Student Copy of a Concepts and Applications test

  • This sample is from a third grade test.
  • The actual Concepts and Applications test is 3 pages long.
concepts and applications71
Concepts and Applications
  • Length of test varies by grade.
concepts and applications72
Concepts and Applications
  • Students receive 1 point for each blank answered correctly.
  • The number of correct answers within the time limit is the student’s score.
concepts and applications73
Concepts and Applications

Quinten’s Fourth Grade Concepts and Applications Test

  • Twenty-four blanks answered correctly.
  • Quinten’s score is 24.
slide75

Concepts and Applications

Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications Test—1

  • Let’s practice.
slide76

Concepts and Applications

Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications Test—Page 2

concepts and applications77
Concepts and Applications

Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications Test—Page 3

  • Let’s practice.
number identification
Number Identification
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 84 items and is asked to orally identify the written number between 0 and 100.
  • After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the student’s responses on the Number Identification score sheet.
number identification80
Number Identification

Student Copy of

a Number

Identification test

  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.
number identification81
Number Identification

Number Identification Score Sheet

number identification82
Number Identification
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say “Try this one.”
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes the student’s responses on the Number Identification score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1 minute.
number identification83
Number Identification

Jamal’s Number

Identification

Score Sheet

  • Skipped items are marked with a (-).
  • Fifty-seven items attempted.
  • Three incorrect.
  • Jamal’s score is 54.
number identification84
Number Identification

Teacher Score

Sheet

  • Let’s practice.
number identification85
Number Identification

Student

Sheet—Page 1

  • Let’s practice.
number identification86
Number Identification

Student

Sheet—Page 2

  • Let’s practice.
number identification87
Number Identification

Student

Sheet—Page 3

  • Let’s practice.
quantity discrimination
Quantity Discrimination
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 63 items and asked to orally identify the larger number from a set of two numbers.
  • After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the student’s responses on the Quantity Discrimination score sheet.
quantity discrimination89
Quantity Discrimination

Student Copy of a

Quantity

Discrimination test

  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.
quantity discrimination91
Quantity Discrimination
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say “Try this one.”
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes student’s responses on the Quantity Discrimination score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on the score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in a minute.
quantity discrimination92
Quantity Discrimination

Lin’s Quantity

Discrimination

Score Sheet

  • Thirty-eight items attempted.
  • Five incorrect.
  • Lin’s score is 33.
quantity discrimination93
Quantity Discrimination

Teacher Score

Sheet

  • Let’s practice.
quantity discrimination94
Quantity Discrimination

Student

Sheet—Page 1

  • Let’s practice.
quantity discrimination95
Quantity Discrimination

Student

Sheet—Page 2

  • Let’s practice.
quantity discrimination96
Quantity Discrimination

Student

Sheet—Page 3

  • Let’s practice.
missing number
Missing Number
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 63 items and asked to orally identify the missing number in a sequence of four numbers.
  • After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the student’s responses on the Missing Number score sheet.
missing number98
Missing Number

Student Copy

of a Missing

Number Test

  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.
missing number99
Missing Number

Missing Number

Score Sheet

missing number100
Missing Number
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say “Try this one.”
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes the student’s responses on the Missing Number score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on the score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in I minute.
missing number101
Missing Number

Thomas’s

Missing Number

Score Sheet

  • Twenty-six items attempted.
  • Eight incorrect.
  • Thomas’s scoreis 18.
missing number102
Missing Number

Teacher Score

Sheet

  • Let’s practice.
missing number103
Missing Number

Student

Sheet—Page 1

  • Let’s practice.
missing number104
Missing Number

Student

Sheet—Page 2

  • Let’s practice.
missing number105
Missing Number

Student

Sheet—Page 3

  • Let’s practice.
slide106

Step 4: How to Graph Scores

  • Graphing student scores is vital.
  • Graphs provide teachers with a straightforward way to:
    • Review a student’s progress.
    • Monitor the appropriateness of student goals.
    • Judge the adequacy of student progress.
    • Compare and contrast successful and unsuccessful instructional aspects of a student’s program.
slide107

Step 4: How to Graph Scores

  • Teachers can use computer graphing programs.
    • List available in Appendix A of manual.
  • Teachers can create their own graphs.
    • Create template for student graph.
    • Use same template for every student in the classroom.
    • Vertical axis shows the range of student scores.
    • Horizontal axis shows the number of weeks.
slide109

Step 4: How to Graph Scores

25

20

15

Digits Correct in 3 Minutes

10

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Weeks of Instruction

  • Student scores are plotted on graph and a line is drawn between scores.
slide110

Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

  • Once a few scores have been graphed, the teacher decides on an end-of-year performance goal for each student.
  • Three options for making performance goals:
    • End-of-Year Benchmarking
    • Intra-Individual Framework
    • National Norms
slide111

Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

  • End-of-Year Benchmarking
  • For typically developing students, a table of benchmarks can be used to find the CBM end-of-year performance goal.
slide113

Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

Intra-Individual Framework

  • Weekly rate of improvement is calculated using at least eight data points.
  • Baseline rate is multiplied by 1.5.
  • Product is multiplied by the number of weeks until the end of the school year.
  • Product is added to the student’s baseline rate to produce end-of-year performance goal.
step 5 how to set ambitious goals
Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • First eight scores: 3, 2, 5, 6, 5, 5, 7, and 4.
  • Difference: 7 – 2 = 5.
  • Divide by weeks: 5 ÷ 8 = 0.625.
  • Multiply by baseline: 0.625 × 1.5 = 0.9375.
  • Multiply by weeks left: 0.9375 × 14 = 13.125.
  • Product is added to median: 13.125 + 5 = 18.125.
  • The end-of-year performance goal is 18 (rounding).
slide115

Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

National Norms

  • For typically developing students, a table of median rates of weekly increase can be used to find the end-of-year performance goal.
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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

National Norms

  • Median: 14
  • Fourth Grade Computation Norm: 0.70
  • Multiply by weeks left: 16 × 0.70 = 11.2
  • Add to median: 11.2 + 14 = 25.2
  • The end-of-year performance goal is 25
step 5 how to set ambitious goals117
Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

National Norms

  • Once the end-of-year performance goal has been created, the goal is marked on the student graph with an X.
  • A goal line is drawn between the median of the student’s scores and the X.
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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

Drawing a Goal-Line

Goal-line: The desired path of measured behavior to reach the performance goal over time.

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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

  • After drawing the goal-line, teachers continually monitor student graphs.
  • After seven to eight CBM scores, teachers draw a trend-line to represent actual student progress.
    • The goal-line and trend-line are compared.
  • The trend-line is drawn using the Tukey method.

Trend-line: A line drawn in the data path to indicate the direction (trend) of the observed behavior.

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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

  • Tukey Method
    • Graphed scores are divided into three fairly equal groups.
    • Two vertical lines are drawn between the groups.
  • In the first and third groups:
    • Find the median data point and median instructional week.
    • Locate the place on the graph where the two values intersect and mark with an X.
    • Draw a line between the first group X and third group X.
    • This line is the trend-line.
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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

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Practice 1

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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

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Practice 2

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Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals

  • CBM computer management programs are available.
  • Programs create graphs and aid teachers with performance goals and instructional decisions.
  • Various types are available for varying fees.
  • Listed in Appendix A of manual.
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
  • After trend-lines have been drawn, teachers use graphs to evaluate student progress and formulate instructional decisions.
  • Standard decision rules help with this process.
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
  • If at least 3 weeks of instruction have occurred and at least six data points have been collected, examine the four most recent consecutive points:
    • If all four most recent scores fall above the goal-line, the end-of-year performance goal needs to be increased.
    • If all four most recent scores fall below the goal-line, the student\'s instructional program needs to be revised.
    • If these four most recent scores fall both above and below the goal-line, continue collecting data (until the four-point rule can be used or a trend-line can be drawn).
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals

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Most recent 4 points

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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals

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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
  • Based on the student’s trend-line:
    • If the trend-line is steeper than the goal line, the end-of-year performance goal needs to be increased.
    • If the trend-line is flatter than the goal line, the student’s instructional program needs to be revised.
    • If the trend-line and goal-line are fairly equal, no changes need to be made.
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
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Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and Increase Goals
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Step 7: How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths and Weaknesses

  • Using a skills profile, student progress can be analyzed to describe student strengths and weaknesses.
  • Student completes Computation or Concepts and Applications tests.
  • Skills profile provides a visual display of a student’s progress by skill area.
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Step 7: How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths and Weaknesses

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Step 7: How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths and Weaknesses

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Other Ways to Use the Curriculum-Based Measurement Database

  • How to Use the Curriculum-Based Measurement Database to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability and for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving Student Outcomes
  • How to Incorporate Decision Making Frameworks to Enhance General Educator Planning
  • How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify Nonresponders Within a Response-to-Intervention Framework to Identify Disability
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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

  • No Child Left Behind requires all schools to show Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) toward a proficiency goal.
  • Schools must determine measure(s) for AYP evaluation and the criterion for deeming an individual student “proficient.”
  • CBM can be used to fulfill the AYP evaluation in math.
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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

  • Using Math CBM:
    • Schools can assess students to identify the number of initial students who meet benchmarks (initial proficiency).
    • The discrepancy between initial proficiency and universal proficiency is calculated.
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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

  • The discrepancy is divided by the number of years before the 2013–2014 deadline.
  • This calculation provides the number of additional students who must meet benchmarks each year.
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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

  • Advantages of using CBM for AYP:
    • Measures are simple and easy to administer.
    • Training is quick and reliable.
    • Entire student body can be measured efficiently and frequently.
    • Routine testing allows schools to track progress during school year.
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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

Across-Year School Progress

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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

Within-Year School Progress

(281)

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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

Within-Year Teacher Progress

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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

Within-Year Special Education Progress

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How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School Outcomes

Within-Year Student Progress

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How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to Enhance General Educator Planning

  • CBM reports prepared by computer can provide the teacher with information about the class:
    • Student CBM raw scores
    • Graphs of the low-, middle-, and high-performing students
    • CBM score averages
    • List of students who may need additional intervention
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How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention Framework to Identify Disability

  • Traditional assessment for identifying students with learning disabilities relies on intelligence and achievement tests.
  • Alternative framework is conceptualized as nonresponsiveness to otherwise effective instruction.
  • Dual-discrepancy:
    • Student performs below level of classmates.
    • Student’s learning rate is below that of their classmates.
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How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention Framework to Identify Disability

  • All students do not achieve the same degree of math competence.
  • Just because math growth is low, the student doesn’t automatically receive special education services.
  • If the learning rate is similar to that of the other students, the student is profiting from the regular education environment.
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How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention Framework to Identify Disability

  • If a low-performing student is not demonstrating growth where other students are thriving, special intervention should be considered.
  • Alternative instructional methods must be tested to address the mismatch between the student’s learning requirements and the requirements in a conventional instructional program.
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Case Study 2: Darby Valley Elementary

  • Using CBM toward reading AYP:
    • A total of 378 students.
    • Initial benchmarks were met by 125 students.
    • Discrepancy between universal proficiency and initial proficiency is 253 students.
    • Discrepancy of 253 students is divided by the number of years until 2013–2014:
      • 253 ÷ 11 = 23.
    • Twenty-three students need to meet CBM benchmarks each year to demonstrate AYP.
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Case Study 2: Darby Valley Elementary

400

X

(378)

300

Meeting CBM Benchmarks

Number Students

200

100

(125)

0

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2004

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2006

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2011

2012

2013

2014

End of School Year

Across-Year School Progress

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Case Study 2: Darby Valley Elementary

X

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Within-Year School Progress

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Case Study 2: Darby Valley Elementary

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2004 School-Year Month

Special Education

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Case Study 4: Marcus

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High-performing math students

Middle-performing math students

Low-performing math students

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Curriculum-Based Measurement Materials

  • AIMSweb/Edformation
  • Yearly ProgressProTM/McGraw-Hill
  • Monitoring Basic Skills Progress/Pro-Ed, Inc.
  • Research Institute on Progress Monitoring, University of Minnesota (OSEP Funded)
  • Vanderbilt University
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Curriculum-Based Measurement Resources

  • List on pages 31–34 of materials packet
  • Appendix B of CBM manual
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