Transportation Vehicles  Society

Transportation Vehicles Society PowerPoint PPT Presentation


... Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets) Block Boys and Horse Manure. Pitt St. ... Down the Asphalt Path, The Automobile and the American City (1994) ...

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Transportation Vehicles Society

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Slide 1:Transportation Vehicles & Society

Slide 2:Overview Pre-1600 Primitive transport 1600-1800 Rise of the horse 1800-1900 Rail, steam, electricity 1900-1950 Rise of the automobile 1950-present Freeways, containers & air Major themes Time Economics Accessibility

Slide 3:Pre-1600: Primitive Transport Primary modes of transport Foot Cart Horse Pre-industrial cities Few open spaces Inverse class segregation from today

Slide 5:1600 – 1800: Rise of the Horse Additional transport modes: Carriage Wagon Major issues More mobility More safety issues More pollution

Slide 6:Major Events

Slide 8:Intracity Transport Horse power dominates Charging for rides Hackney coaches (hacks) Cabriolet (cab) and hansom carriages Omnibus (1820s) Expensive: $0.25/mile

Slide 11:1600 – 1800: State of Transport

Slide 12:1800 – 1900: Rail, Steam & Electricity Additional transport modes: Steam powered vehicles Cable cars Electric trolley Major issues Steam power Safety (higher speeds, steam power) Suburbanization

Slide 13:Major Events

Slide 14:The “Pull” of Rail

Slide 15:Focus: Pavements

Slide 20:Plank and Corduroy pavements were popular in the Pacific Northwest because wood was easier to come by than stone.Plank and Corduroy pavements were popular in the Pacific Northwest because wood was easier to come by than stone.

Slide 21:Notice the relatively high quality of this plank pavement in Port AngelesNotice the relatively high quality of this plank pavement in Port Angeles

Slide 22:City pavements required some roughness so that horses could get a foothold and traction. Wood blocks were considered ideas (for a while) because they could mimic the foothold of cobblestone or block pavement, but the wood muffled the sound of the horseshoes. Problem was, wood deteriorated quickly (3 to 5 years for a plank pavement). Wood blocks treated with creosote to make them last upwards of 10 to 15 years (likely an exaggerated claim). Wood blocks lost popularity in the U.S. partly because of a couple of: Chicago Fire (1871). Streets with creosote soaked wood blocks served to spread the fire rather than serve as fire barriers. They didn’t last in may places, especially Washington, D.C. (1878) – lasted 5 years and city spent 20 years paying off bonds for a pavement that no longer existed. Introduction of asphalt pavements and concrete foundations. City pavements required some roughness so that horses could get a foothold and traction. Wood blocks were considered ideas (for a while) because they could mimic the foothold of cobblestone or block pavement, but the wood muffled the sound of the horseshoes. Problem was, wood deteriorated quickly (3 to 5 years for a plank pavement). Wood blocks treated with creosote to make them last upwards of 10 to 15 years (likely an exaggerated claim). Wood blocks lost popularity in the U.S. partly because of a couple of: Chicago Fire (1871). Streets with creosote soaked wood blocks served to spread the fire rather than serve as fire barriers. They didn’t last in may places, especially Washington, D.C. (1878) – lasted 5 years and city spent 20 years paying off bonds for a pavement that no longer existed. Introduction of asphalt pavements and concrete foundations.

Slide 24:Many streets were overlaid with a thin layer of “sheet asphalt”. Concrete was often used as a base and then surfaced with asphalt. Concrete shattered under iron horseshoe loads but could withstand more loads without deforming. Solution was to pave concrete and then surface with softer, smoother asphalt.Many streets were overlaid with a thin layer of “sheet asphalt”. Concrete was often used as a base and then surfaced with asphalt. Concrete shattered under iron horseshoe loads but could withstand more loads without deforming. Solution was to pave concrete and then surface with softer, smoother asphalt.

Slide 27:Paying for Roads/Pavement Generally abutters paid for improvements. Originally they paid for roads and pavements independent of the City. Later, special assessments became common, although the only thing the City really did was provide engineering advice and coercive and borrowing power. Often, quality of pavement was bad as abutters sought cheapest fix. Parking was sometimes included between sidewalk and abutters. People were allowed to plant there but not build (still have vestiges of this today). Paying for Roads/Pavement Generally abutters paid for improvements. Originally they paid for roads and pavements independent of the City. Later, special assessments became common, although the only thing the City really did was provide engineering advice and coercive and borrowing power. Often, quality of pavement was bad as abutters sought cheapest fix. Parking was sometimes included between sidewalk and abutters. People were allowed to plant there but not build (still have vestiges of this today).

Slide 28:Types of Pavement in Major U.S. Cities We were generally 20 years behind European innovation in the U.S. as far as pavements went. We were generally 20 years behind European innovation in the U.S. as far as pavements went.

Slide 29:Sydney, Australia Pavements

Slide 30:Steam Vehicles First tried on vehicles in 1830s Many cities prohibited due to high speeds and boiler explosion fears Relegated to separate ROW for safety Gave rise to Elevated (“Els”) in 1860s Steam vehicles associated with rail in U.S. Commuter rail (1830s – 1900s) Creates “suburbs” around rail lines Grooved rail Boston commuters: 6% in 1850, 1/3 by rail, 18% by 1860 Alphonse Loubat invented grooved rail NYC 1852Boston commuters: 6% in 1850, 1/3 by rail, 18% by 1860 Alphonse Loubat invented grooved rail NYC 1852

Slide 34:Horse-drawn trolley’s come along after invention of rail with a groove so it can lay at grade with rest of pavement More efficient to travel on rail than on crappy pavementHorse-drawn trolley’s come along after invention of rail with a groove so it can lay at grade with rest of pavement More efficient to travel on rail than on crappy pavement

Slide 35:Focus: the Trouble with Horses Lots of horses 1 per 23 people (in large cities) Teamsters ? 328% (1870 – 1900) Filthy NYC sanitation removed 15,000 carcasses annually in the 1880s Each horse dropped 10 – 20 lbs of manure daily NYC manure 800,000 to 1,300,000 lbs daily (150,000 tons annually) NYC Central Park stable had a 30,000 ft3 pile of manure next to it Filth quotes of p. 51 second-to-last paragraphFilth quotes of p. 51 second-to-last paragraph

Slide 36:Focus: the Trouble with Horses Unhealthy Tuberculosis (TB) leading cause of death in the 1890s TB death rate ? as number of autos ? (probable correlation with horse filth/dust) Expensive $1,200 for a tandem in 1850 Freight costs: Chicago to NYC = $7.50/ton (railroads) NYC local delivery = $5.00/ton (horse power) Dangerous Traffic fatalities were higher for wagons and carriages than for streetcars

Slide 39:Yesler St. Cable car line opened in September 1888 and ran until 1940. At time of opening, it was the 7th in the world and first in the Pacific NW. Cable cars are expensive: installation could run $100,000/mile About 10 mph is top speed Yesler St. Cable car line opened in September 1888 and ran until 1940. At time of opening, it was the 7th in the world and first in the Pacific NW. Cable cars are expensive: installation could run $100,000/mile About 10 mph is top speed

Slide 40:Became feasible after the invention of the electric generator in 1870 Werner von Siemens built first system in Berlin in 1879 but 3rd rail was on ground and unsafe (system fenced off from public). He built an overhead wire system in Paris in 1881. Cost 1/3 of cable cars, making fares more affordable. This gave rise to true urban “mass transit”. Allows for city areas to grow (nearly double in 10 years) because streetcar allows you to still reach the CBD.Became feasible after the invention of the electric generator in 1870 Werner von Siemens built first system in Berlin in 1879 but 3rd rail was on ground and unsafe (system fenced off from public). He built an overhead wire system in Paris in 1881. Cost 1/3 of cable cars, making fares more affordable. This gave rise to true urban “mass transit”. Allows for city areas to grow (nearly double in 10 years) because streetcar allows you to still reach the CBD.

Slide 43:1800-1900: State of Transport

Slide 44:1900 – 1950: Rise of the Automobile Additional transport modes: Internal combustion automobile Major issues Affordability Independence

Slide 45:Major Events

Slide 46:Major Issues Shaping the Auto Low population densities Pavements Prejudice against fast vehicles wanes Unresponsiveness & monopolistic trolleys Influence of the bicycle Social demand New middle class status symbol Allows for suburban living Pollution Auto developed first in urban European cities with the best pavement infrastructrure Bicycle opened minds to longer distance independent travel, practical use of the pneumatic tire, drive trainsAuto developed first in urban European cities with the best pavement infrastructrure Bicycle opened minds to longer distance independent travel, practical use of the pneumatic tire, drive trains

Slide 47:Development of the American Car

Slide 48:Cost (Model T)

Slide 49:Values Associated with Autos Independence Freedom Status Liberation Strength Reliability Conquest Romance Mr. Toad’s Wild Ride was from the Wind in the Willows (1908) Tracy Chapman’s Fast Car You got a fast car I want a ticket to anywhere Maybe we make a deal Maybe together we can get somewhere Anyplace is better Starting from zero got nothing to lose Maybe we’ll make something But me myself I got nothing to prove You got a fast car And I got a plan to get us out of here I been working at the convenience store Managed to save just a little bit of money We won’t have to drive too far Just ’cross the border and into the city You and I can both get jobs And finally see what it means to be living You see my old man’s got a problem He live with the bottle that’s the way it is He says his body’s too old for working I say his body’s too young to look like his My mama went off and left him She wanted more from life than he could give I said somebody’s got to take care of him So I quit school and that’s what I did You got a fast car But is it fast enough so we can fly away We gotta make a decision We leave tonight or live and die this way I remember we were driving driving in your car The speed so fast I felt like I was drunk City lights lay out before us And your arm felt nice wrapped ’round my shoulder And I had a feeling that I belonged And I had a feeling I could be someone, be someone, be someone You got a fast car And we go cruising to entertain ourselves You still ain’t got a job And I work in a market as a checkout girl I know things will get better You’ll find work and I’ll get promoted We’ll move out of the shelter Buy a big house and live in the suburbs You got a fast car And I got a job that pays all our bills You stay out drinking late at the bar See more of your friends than you do of your kids I’d always hoped for better Thought maybe together you and me would find it I got no plans I ain’t going nowhere So take your fast car and keep on driving You got a fast car But is it fast enough so you can fly away You gotta make a decision You leave tonight or live and die this way Mr. Toad’s Wild Ride was from the Wind in the Willows (1908) Tracy Chapman’s Fast Car You got a fast carI want a ticket to anywhereMaybe we make a dealMaybe together we can get somewhere

Slide 56:1900-1950: State of Transport

Slide 57:1950+: Freeways, Containers & Air Additional transport modes: Freight trucking Container shipping Air Major issues Mobility Speed Cost Environmental justice Funding: 90% comes from the federal government To be built and maintained by the states Funding: 90% comes from the federal government To be built and maintained by the states

Slide 58:Major Events

Slide 61:Dedicated, December 30, 1940Dedicated, December 30, 1940

Slide 62:Intercity Travel Intercity Travel Initial impetus for limited access highways Jobs program (Autobahn, Interstate) Connect major urban areas and states Defense Intracity travel Not an original reason for Interstates 20% of Interstate mileage in urban areas Still somewhat uniquely American

Slide 71:Freeway Revolts Boston New Orleans San Francisco

Slide 72:Trucking

Slide 73:Truck Flow on the National Highway System

Slide 75:Container Freight 95% of world cargo volume moves by ship 1955: Modern container invented Containers 1972: 6.3 million TEU 1997: 163 million TEU 2003: 220 million TEU Cost of shipping: 1% of total cost of goods Ship size 1966: 600 TEUs 2000: 6,600 TEUsShip size 1966: 600 TEUs 2000: 6,600 TEUs

Slide 77:Air Travel

Slide 78:1950+: State of Transport

Slide 79:Suburban Living Cause and effect Intrinsic reasons for expansion into suburbia: Seek country-like surroundings commensurate with American rural life style values Reaction to close quarters housing of the early Industrial Revolution Urban fringe land is cheaper Transportation helped realize existing demands – it did not create them Trade off poor accessibility for lower housing costs then demand governments compensate them for poor accessibility by building or improving transportation systems Intrinsic reasons for expansion into suburbia: Seek country-like surroundings commensurate with American rural life style values Reaction to close quarters housing of the early Industrial Revolution Urban fringe land is cheaper Transportation helped realize existing demands – it did not create them Trade off poor accessibility for lower housing costs then demand governments compensate them for poor accessibility by building or improving transportation systems

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