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USAID/Mozambique Gender Analysis of Tourism Sector: De-Brief and Preliminary Recommendations

DevTech Systems, Inc.

Maputo, February 18, 2005

Assessment Team:

Virginia Lambert, IBM

Jim McNicholas, DevTech Systems, Inc.

Edda Collier, Maputo


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Outline of Briefing and Preliminary Recommendations

  • Introduction and Context

  • USAID Approach to Gender Analysis and Gender Integration in Programming

  • Integrating Gender--Where we are in the Process

  • Key Issues Identified

  • Preliminary Recommendations

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Gender Analysis conducted for Country Strategic Plan and Preliminary Recommendations

SO7 Action Plan:

Promote self-regulation at the association level to ensure minimum labor standards applied

Ensure statistics on employment creation are disaggregated by sex and systematic monitoring conducted

Carry out policy research on liberalization measures that support gender equality

USAID/Mozambique

Gender Action Plan:

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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USAID Methodology and Preliminary Recommendations

for Gender Analysis

Two key questions with regard to gender issues:

  • How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results; and,

  • How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women?

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Gender Integration— and Preliminary RecommendationsWhere we are in the Process

  • Policy Goal: Influence Policy Environment

  • Program Design: Framework Development and Initiative Packaging

  • Gender Analysis at this stage: Identify key gender-based constraints and opportunities for program and policy interventions as design moves forward

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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National Overview: and Preliminary Recommendations

Illiteracy:

69% Female

38% Male

Enrollment secondary (8-10)

29% Female

71% Male

Maternal mortality: 1500/150,000

Northern provinces:

Illiteracy:

86.2 % Female

56.3% Male

Current Policy Context:

Commitment of Government

Policy Framework; New Family Law (2003)

Existing Resources and Initiatives

Context and Existing Resources:

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Priority Gender Issues Identified and Preliminary Recommendations

  • Income Generation

    • Direct Employment in Tourism Sector

    • Indirect Employment through Linkages

    • Tools and Interventions to Promote Entrepreneurialism and Business Development

  • Potential Negative Linkages/Illegal Activities

  • Infrastructure

  • Community Based Resource Management

  • Policy Implications

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Direct Employment Opportunities in Tourism in Northern Provinces

International Experience:

  • Tourism is significant employment generator (men and women)

  • Higher percentage of women employed than in broader economy

  • Opportunity for women to advance in sector

    Possible Constraints in Northern Mozambique:

  • Cultural Constraints

  • Labor Availability of Women: Gender Roles in Household

  • Education and Training Gap

  • Level of entry and types of jobs

  • Labor Law

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Indirect Employment Opportunities through Market Linkages Provinces

  • Agricultural Production to Tourism Market

  • Artisan products and crafts

  • Goods and Services

  • Cultural Products

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Tools and Interventions Provincesfor Employment and SME Development

  • Information Dissemination and Promotion of Tourism as Economic Value

  • Training: On the job and Bus. Development Skills

  • Credit and Financial Services

  • Monitoring of Women’s Participation:

    • Quantitative—recruitment and promotion

    • Qualitative

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Potential Negative Linkages/ Illegal Activities Provinces

Potential Negative Linkages

  • Prostitution

  • HIV/AIDS

  • Opportunity to integrate HIV, legal enforcement, and gender awareness training into programmatic and tourism promotion trainings

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Infrastructure Provinces

Positive Linkages

  • Infrastructure: Health and Transport

  • Linked to Health Programs: e.g. Malaria, HIV

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.



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Community-based Natural Resource Management and Decision-making

  • Achieving objectives of tourism investments will be affected by relationship with community.

  • Gender roles in resource management need to be understood.

  • Distribution of benefits in community: engage women actively in participation in community negotiation of trade-offs and benefits

  • Long-term process: part of enabling environment for protected area management plans.

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Policy Implications Decision-making

  • PARPA II

  • Land Law

  • Labor Law Reform

  • Dissemination of information and promotion of enforcement of existing laws required for provinces

  • Ensuring entrepreneurs, lawyers, policy review includes credible advocate for gender issues

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.


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Summary of Decision-makingPreliminary Recommendations

  • Monitoring and Evaluation

  • Staffing and Training

  • Site-level: On-site analysis of gender roles and distribution of benefits and impacts on communities

  • Ensure credible gender advocate participates in the development of policy enabling environment

February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.