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The business and the financing plan for the project financial modeling and evaluation l.jpg

ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES

FACULTY OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

The Business and the Financing Plan for the Project. Financial Modeling and Evaluation

Lecture 6:

Lect. Cristian PĂUN


The business and financing plan definition l.jpg
The business and financing plan definition

  • Business plan is a picture or a model of what a business unit will be.

  • Business plan contains information on:

    • product(s)

    • markets

    • employees

    • technology, facilities

    • capital, revenues and profitability

  • Financing plan is a distinctive part of the business plan and contain a detailed presentation of:

    • Borrowing capacity

    • Sources of financial funds;

    • Cost analysis for each source;

    • WACC analysis;

    • Discounted Cash Flow Analysis;

    • Presentation of Financial Forecast

      • Income Statements

      • Balance Sheets

      • Statements of Cash Flows


  • Why a business and financing plan l.jpg
    Why a business and financing plan ?

    • To get help from others, especially financial funds providers (banks, equity investors);

    • To convince the sponsors, banks and other creditworthiness parties that the project will be a successful one.

    • Provides a guide for running operations once the project is started.

    • Incidental benefit: Pulls the participants and management team together and forces owners/managers to fully understand the tasks ahead of them


    Business plan outline l.jpg

    Contents

    Executive Summary

    Mission Statement

    Market

    Background

    The Customers

    Product Description

    Competitive Analysis

    Pricing

    Operations

    Sources of Input/Costs

    Processes / Equipment

    Management/Staffing

    Financial Projections

    Current Statements

    Projected Statements

    Application for Funds

    Contingency Planning

    Appendices

    Business Plan Outline


    Financing plan objectives l.jpg
    Financing Plan Objectives

    • Designing the optimal financing plan for a project generally involves the following objectives:

      • Ensuring the availability of sufficient financial resources to complete the project;

      • Obtaining the necessary funds at the lowest practicable cost;

      • Minimizing the project sponsors exposure to the project;

      • Establishing a dividend policy that maximize the rate of return for the sponsor’s equities;

      • Maximizing the value of tax benefits for the project ownerships;

      • Obtaining the most beneficial regulatory treatment.


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    Financing plan components

    • Borrowing Capacity of the project;

    • Project ability to service the debt;

    • Financing Sources Table;

    • WACC Analysis;

    • Discounted Cash Flow Analysis;

    • Income Statement;

    • Balance sheet;

    • Cash Flow Statement;



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    Financial Modeling Inputs

    • Macroeconomic assumptions;

    • Project costs and funding structure

    • Operating revenues and costs;

    • Loan drawings and debt service;

    • Taxation and accounting.


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    Financial Modeling Outputs

    • Construction phase costs;

    • Drawdown of equity;

    • Drawdown and repayment of debt;

    • Interest calculation;

    • Operating revenues and costs;

    • Tax;

    • Income statement;

    • Balance Sheet;

    • Cash Flow Statement;

    • Lender’s coverage ratio.


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    Main steps for financial modeling

    • Macroeconomic assumption;

    • Project costs and funding structure;

    • Operating revenues and costs;

    • Borrowing capacity;

    • Capacity to cover debt service;

    • Taxation and accounting.

    • WACC;

    • IRR and NPV for the project;


    Step 1 macroeconomic assumption l.jpg
    Step 1: Macroeconomic assumption

    Targets:

    • Inflation

    • Commodity prices

    • Interest rates;

    • Exchange rates;

    • GDP Growth;

    • Other macroeconomic aspects (ex: traffic)


    Step1 1 inflation analysis l.jpg
    Step1.1. Inflation Analysis

    • Offer a “real” basis for the project;

    • In the analysis could be used different indicators:

      • Consumer price inflation in the Host Country;

      • Indices of employment costs in the country of suppliers or providers of services;

      • Industrial price inflation for the cost of spare parts;

      • Specific price indices for commodities produced or purchased by the project.


    Step 1 2 commodity prices l.jpg
    Step 1.2. Commodity prices

    • It referrers not to the inflation but to the vulnerability of the project to cyclical movements in commodity prices.

    • The projects are developed when commodity prices are high, and assume that these prices will continue to remain at least at this level.

    • Commodity prices may be very violent on a short term basis.


    Step 1 3 interest rates l.jpg
    Step 1.3. Interest rates

    • Interest rates factors;

    • Interest rates components;

    • Nominal interest rate vs real interest rate.

    Step 1.4. Exchange rates

    The approaches:

    • Traditional theory;

    • PPP Theory;

    • Monetary approach;

    • IPP Theory.

    + Step 1.5. GDP Growth


    Step 2 project costs and funding l.jpg
    Step 2: Project Costs and funding

    • Project costs:

      • Development costs: stuff and other travel costs to develop the project;

      • Development fees: taxes paid for the location, concessions;

      • Project Company costs:

        • Personnel costs;

        • Office and equipment;

        • Costs for permits and licenses;

        • Construction supervision;

        • Training and mobilization costs.

      • Construction price;

      • Construction insurance;

      • Star-up costs:

        • Fuel or raw materials;

      • Initial spare parts;

      • Working capital covering:

        • Initial inventories;

        • Office and personnel costs;

        • The first operating insurance premium.


    Project costs and funding l.jpg
    Project Costs and funding

    • Project costs (cont.):

      • Taxes: VAT or other sales taxes;

      • Financing costs:

        • Loan arrangements and underwriting fees;

        • Loan and security registration costs;

        • Costs of lender’s advisers;

        • Interest during construction;

        • Commitment fees;

        • Loan agency costs.

      • Funding of Reserves Accounts;

      • Contingency (provisions for unexpected events).


    Operating revenues and costs l.jpg
    Operating revenues and costs

    • Operating revenues from sales of product

    • Operating costs:

      • Cost of fuel or raw materials;

      • Personnel and office costs;

      • Maintenance costs;

      • Insurance costs.

    Accounting and taxation issues

    • Capitalization and depreciation of the project costs;

    • The dividends;

    • Tax payments and accountings


    Project funding l.jpg
    Project funding

    • The required ratio between equity and debt;

    • The borrowing capacity of the project;

    • The capacity of the project to service the debt;

    • For each financial source should be made an amortization table:

      • Principals;

      • Interest payments;

      • Annuities.

    • The priority of drawing between equity and debt;

    • Any limitation of the use of debt;

    • A drawdown schedule for both equity and debt;

    • WACC Analysis.



    Borrowing capacity model for a project l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity Model for a Project

    Hypothesis A: Full drawdown of capital in the moment of full completion

    • The amount the bank will lend to a project entity should equal a fraction of the present value – PV of the available cash flows:

      α x D = PV

      Where: α – is the target cash flow coverage ratio

      D – the maximum loan amount

      PV – present value of future cash flows

    • PV is calculated from the cash flow projection for the project;

    • The projection of cash flows is based on a preliminary estimation of:

      • R – cash revenues during the first year;

      • E – cash expenses during the first year;

      • The rates (gE and gR) at which revenues and expenses are growing during the period of the project debt is contracting.


    Borrowing capacity model for a local project l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity Model for a Local Project

    The cash flow available for debt service for year t is:

    (1-T) x [R(1+gR)t-1 – E(1+gE)t-1-C] + C = (1-T) x [R(1+gR)t-1 – E(1+gE)t-1] + TC


    Borrowing capacity model for a local project22 l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity Model for a Local Project

    Taking into consideration the initial assumption:

    α x D = PV

    We can obtain the value for the revenues that can cover a desired loan amount – D:

    Where:

    - “i” is the interest rate of the debt;

    - “N” is life of the loan measured from the date of completion.



    Example calculation of a project s borrowing capacity24 l.jpg
    Example: Calculation of a Project’s Borrowing capacity

    Initial Assumption

    Task: - you should determine what is the total debt that the project is capable to support


    Borrowing capacity assumption 1 l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity – Assumption 1

    Formula for PV:

    The answer is:

    PV = 1.488.691 Euro

    D* = 992.461 Euro

    The debt capacity of the project is 992.461 Euro based on an estimated present value of the cash flows in value of 1.488.691 Euro.


    Example calculation of a project s borrowing capacity26 l.jpg
    Example: Calculation of a Project’s Borrowing capacity

    Assumption 2: a lower debt level for the project

    Task: - you should determine what is the minimum value for cash revenues in order to cover a debt of 700.000 Euro


    Borrowing capacity assumption 2 l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity – Assumption 2

    Formula for R:

    The answer is:

    Cash Revenues = 2.614.542 Euro

    The minimum cash revenues that can support a debt of 700.000 Euro is R = 2.614.542 Euro. A lower debt level (700.000 Euro instead 992.461 Euro) involves a lower level of cash revenues for the project.


    Slide28 l.jpg

    Example: Calculation of a Project’s Borrowing capacity

    Assumption 3:a lower growth rate for cash revenues

    Task: - you should determine what is the minimum value for cash revenues in order to cover a debt of 700.000 Euro.


    Borrowing capacity assumption 3 l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity – Assumption 3

    Formula for R in case of different growth rates for cash revenues and expenses and C=0:

    The answer is:

    Cash Revenues = 2.869.381 Euro

    The minimum cash revenues that can support a debt of 700.000 Euro is R = 2.869.381 Euro. A lower growth rate for the cash revenues (than cash expenses) involves a higher level of cash revenues for the project in order to maintain the same debt level.


    Borrowing capacity model for a project30 l.jpg
    Borrowing Capacity Model for a Project

    Hypothesis B: The revenues and operating expenses do not begin for M years

    • The amount the bank will lend to a project entity should equal a fraction of the present value – PV of the available cash flows beginning with the year M:

    • The project company will draw a loan in the initial moment but the cash revenues and expenses are generated in a future moment M.

    • The present value of the project future cash flows should equal present value of the debt D drawn in the initial moment:

    M

    Construction phase

    Operating phase

    Drawing moment for the debt D

    α x D x (1+i)M = PV



    Example estimation of m l.jpg
    Example: Estimation of M

    Average life = 1.929 years = M

    This is the estimated period before the project produces any operating cash flows.


    Example calculation of a project s borrowing capacity33 l.jpg
    Example: Calculation of a Project’s Borrowing capacity

    Assumption 4: the project generates cash flows after 2 years

    Task: - you should determine what is the total debt that the project is capable to support


    Example calculation of a project s borrowing capacity34 l.jpg
    Example: Calculation of a Project’s Borrowing capacity

    Assumption 5: the project generates cash flows after 3 years

    Task: - you should determine what is the total debt that the project is capable to support



    Project ability to service the debt36 l.jpg
    Project Ability to service the debt

    • To evaluate the project ability to service its debt usually it is used three main financial ratios:

      • Interest coverage ratio:

        ICR=EBIT / Interest

      • Fixed Charge Coverage ratio:

        FCCR=(EBIT + 1/3 rentals) / (Interest + 1/3 rentals)

      • Debt Service Coverage ratio:



    Cost of international financing l.jpg
    Cost of International Financing

    Step 1: Determine the proportions of each source to be raised as capital.

    Step 2: Determine the marginal cost of each source.

    Step 3: Calculate the weighted average cost of capital.

    Current Yield =

    Current Yield = 9.04%


    Present value net present value internal rate of return l.jpg
    Present Value, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return

    IRR = k  NPV = 0

    • Inflation rate

    • Interest rate

    • Estimated profit for an investment project

    Expectations in terms of

    Discounted rate


    Present value net present value internal rate of return40 l.jpg
    Present Value, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return

    Conclusion 1:

    Internal Rate of Return is the best measure for the marginal cost of international financing (real cost is 17.80 instead 10% or 8.89%)


    Comparing credits in different currencies using npv l.jpg
    Comparing credits in different currencies using NPV

    • Method I:

    • Estimating k(euro)

    • Estimating k(USD)

    • NPVeuro x spot0 = NPVeuroUSD


    Comparing credits in different currencies using npv42 l.jpg
    Comparing credits in different currencies using NPV

    • Method II:

    • Estimating k(euro)

    • Estimating exchange rate

    • Transforming An from USD in €

    • Comparing NPV


    Comparing credits in different currencies using npv43 l.jpg
    Comparing credits in different currencies using NPV

    • Method III (best accuracy):

    • Estimating k(euro)

    • Estimating k(USD)

    • Estimating an average FX rate

    • Transforming NPV from USD in €

    • Comparing NPV


    Comparing credits in different currencies using irr l.jpg
    Comparing credits in different currencies using IRR

    Method I: Comparing IRR obtained on initial An expressed in different currencies

    We have the same IRR (= 17.8%)

    Method II: Transforming An from USD to Euro and calculating IRR

    We have different IRR:


    Npv criteria in international financing l.jpg
    NPV Criteria in International Financing

    • Easier to be calculated than IRR

    • It is difficult to estimate different discount rates for different financial markets;

    • We should take into consideration the exchange rate when we compare different NPVs;

    • NPV encourage big investment projects and discourage big financing projects.

    IRR Criteria in International Financing

    • Independent from FX rate;

    • It is quite complicated to be estimated;

    • In some cases we can’t calculate it (symmetric annuities, positive annuities).

    CONCLUSION 2: When compare different financing alternatives we should use both two criteria: NPV and IRR


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    Cost of Equity

    • Scenario A:

    • Buy – back of stocks after 5 years:

    NPV = 0  Kstocks

    Scenario B: no buy - back

    Kstocks = (D0/IP)+g (Gordon – Shapiro Model)



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