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Light Metro Systems (Tramway): Paris City and Paris Suburb, Caen, Nantes, Nancy, ... origin-destination, car parking, travel times, location of congestion...

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slide1

First Sino-French Conference

On Sustainable Urban Transport Systems

November 11-14, 2008

Shanghaï, China

setec

A Methodology for Sustainable Mobility

and Transport Planning Studies

Alain BLOCH / Setec International

slide2

setec

Independent Engineering Group

design…设计

master 控制

www.setec.fr

slide3

Table of Contents目录

A Methodology for Sustainable Mobility

and Transport Planning Studies

  • A Brief presentation of the Setec Group
  • Why a transport planning study?
  • First phase: data collection and diagnosis
  • Second phase: objectives and general scheme
  • Third phase: tools, planning, programming, phasing
  • Remarks about:
    • Consultation
    • Modelling
    • Communication
  • Feasibility Study for a Public Transport Line: a practical example (City of Caen)

3

slide4

A Brief Presentation of the Setec Group

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • founded in 1957, the setec group is now one of France’s largest engineering firms; it is completely independent
  • Setec 集团创建于1957年,是法国重要的工程集团之一。
  • in 2008, setec has a staff of almost 1,500 in France and abroad, among them 1,000 engineers
  • 在2008年,在法国及国外拥有1500多个合作伙伴。
  • subsidiaries and branches abroad:

Hungary, Iran, Japan, Luxemburg, Marocco, Russia, Tunisia

分别在匈牙利,伊朗,日本,卢森堡,摩洛哥,俄罗斯设立常驻机构。

  • annual sales in 2007 (only French subsidiaries): 143 M€
  • 2007年营业额为(仅法国分公司):1.43 亿欧元

4

slide5

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Ranges of Services

业务领域

transport economy & mobility 经济与交通

transport systems 运输系统

infrastructures 基础设施

buildings 建筑物

industry 工业

water and waste 水处理和垃圾处理

environement 环境保护

project management 项目管理

strategy, organisation 城市的战略,结构安排

urban and transport planning 规划,发展

telecommunications & Ict 远距离通讯及Ntic

intelligent transport systems 远程交通运输

Consulting 评估

Design 设计

Supervision of Works

工程指挥

Assistance to the Owner

协助程承包人

for

5

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Major projects 大型项目

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Transport and infrastructures

交通运输与基础设施

Environement 环境

Urban planning 规划

Building 建筑

Industry 工业

Telecom 电讯

Tunnel sous la Manche

英法海底隧道

Tunnels 隧道

Autoroutes (A43, A87, A89,...)高速公路(A43,A87,A89…)‏

Economie des transports 交通经济

Ligne à Grande Vitesse Rhin-Rhône

高速线路莱茵河至罗纳

Transports en commun urbains 城市公共交通

Tramway de l’Agglomération Orléanaise

奥尔良城市及郊区轻轨

Infrastructures fluviales, maritimes et aéroportuaires 江河, 沿海及航空港的基础设施

Extension du port de la Condamine à Monaco 摩那哥的孔达米纳的密集型港口

Infrastructures ferroviaires 铁路基础设施

Ligne ferroviaire Lyon-Turin

里昂至都灵的铁路线

Systèmes et équipements 系统及设备

Déplacement et transport routier en Ile de France

大巴黎区的交通

Ponts et routes 桥梁与公路

Viaduc de Millau

Millau 高架桥

6

slide7

Major projects

大型项目

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Transport and infrastructures

交通运输与基础设施

Environement 环境

Urban planning 规划

Building 建筑

Industry 工业

Telecom 电讯

Déplacements urbains 城市交通

Déplacement et transport routier en Ile de France

大巴黎的交通和公路交通

Aménagement urbain 城市规划

Ville nouvelle de NORTH BAHRAIN

北BAHRAIN 新城

Déplacements urbains 城市交通

Révision du PDU de l’agglomération toulousaine

修正后的图卢兹城市及郊区的PDU

Déplacements urbains 城市交通

Plan de déplacements urbains de l’ile-de-France (Paris)‏

大巴黎区的城市移动图

7

slide8

Urban Public Transport城市公共交通

Design / Building of infrastructures

工程设计/基础设施建筑

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Transport Economics

交通经济

Tramway des Maréchaux (Paris) 巴黎轻轨

Tramway in Orléans 奥尔良轻轨Tramways in Paris area巴黎郊区轻轨

Systems

系统

Rolling Stock / Equipments 车辆设备

8

slide9

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Urban Public Transport 城市公共交通

Traditional metros: Marseille, Lyon, Paris (Eole, Meteor)

传统地铁:马赛,里昂, 巴黎(Eole, Meteor)‏

Automatic metros: Val de Lille, Toulouse, Rennes, SAT de Roissy 自动化地铁:Val de Lille, 图卢兹, Rennes, SAT de Roissy

Light Metro Systems (Tramway): Paris City and Paris Suburb, Caen, Nantes, Nancy, Nice, Orléans, Rouen, Strasbourg, Toulon, Valenciennes

轻轨:巴黎及巴黎区,卡昂,南特,南锡,尼斯,奥尔良,

BRT: Val de Marne, Rouen, Douai, Lyon, Cannes…

专用道巴士:

Urban transportation Plans and Sustainable Mobility Policies: Ile-de-France (Paris), Monaco, Toulouse, Le Mans, Tours, Pau…

城市交通规划:大巴黎,摩纳哥,图卢兹,图尔...

Intermodal nodes: Nantes, Cannes, Vannes, Ile-de-France

交通中转枢纽:南特,冈市,大巴黎...

9

slide10

Assistance à Maîtrise d’Ouvrage

甲方技术协助顾问

Études préalables / Expertises

项目预科研 / 评估

Maîtrise d’œuvre

项目设计总承包

Projets TCSP réalisés en France在法国的快速公交项目

Valenciennes

Rouen

Nancy

Région parisienne

Région parisienne

Caen

Orléans

Nantes

Toulouse

Toulouse

Nice

Toulon

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Études préalables / Expertises

项目预科研 / 评估

  • Tram Maréchaux Est
  • Tram Maréchaux Ouest
  • Bus en site propre RN 305
  • Tram Noisy-le-Sec / Val-de-Fontenay

Maîtrise d’œuvre

项目设计总承包

  • Tramway des Maréchaux Est
  • Tramway T2 Prolongement à Bezons
  • Tramway sur pneu CVV
  • Tramway Villejuif / Athis-Mons
  • Tramway SDEV (Tram Y)
  • TVM Prolongement Ouest

~ 45 km de ligne

Projets TCSP réalisés - IDF在大巴黎的快速公交项目

大巴黎

slide12

Modelling 交通模型

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Model “City of Paris”巴黎公路交通模型

Model “France”法国公路交通模型

Model “Caen PT”卡昂市公交模型

Model “Caen LV”卡昂市公路交通模型

12

slide13

Transport Modelling

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Tools and methodology
    • A Practical Guidebook for Urban Modelling for CERTU
    • New software for the French Road Administration
  • Urban and regional models
    • Caen, Marseille, Reims, Toulon ,Toulouse area (multimodal models)‏
    • Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux (road models)‏
    • Tokyo, Varsovie, Dakar (road models)‏
  • Intercity models
    • Passenger traffic: National Multimodal Model for the French Railways (RFF), numerous High-Speed Lines in France (multimodal), Gibraltar tunnel between Spain and Marocco (multimodal), numerous road traffic models for motorways in France and abroad
    • Goods traffic (multilodal): Lyons-Torino, Canal Seine-Nord Europe

13

slide14

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Setec in China setec 在中国的项目

Opéra de Pékin (calcul des structures)‏

国家歌剧院 (结构计算)‏

14

slide15

Methodology: Why a transport planning study?

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Why analyzing mobility?

  • Chinese Cities: an exponential growth
    • Very important infrastructure works in a very short time
    • How to define a consistent transport system?
    • How to build an harmonious urban development and a sustainable transport system?
  • Analyzing mobility enables to answer various questions and problems:
    • Strategy, Planning
    • Programming
    • Estimate of economical and financial profitability
    • Design of networks
    • Environmental impact (noise, air pollution, greenhouse effect)

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slide16

Methodology: 3 phases

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Phase 1: Data Collection and Diagnosis
  • Phase 2: Definition of Objectives and General Concept
  • Phase 3: Tools and Plan of Action / Programming
  • Then Special Studies about the various proposed actions.
    • For instance, a Public Transport Project

16

slide17

Methodology / Phase 1: Data Collection & Diagnosis

Aims

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Getting an overall photo, and if possible, a dynamic analysis of the transport situation in a city in order to understand:
    • the socio-economic dynamic (population and employment growth, location of urban extensions, car ownership…)‏
    • how each mode works and their relation with urban development
    • the volume and the structure of the trips
    • the dynamic of traffic: modal split, growth for each mode
  • Identifying the dysfunctions and the inconsistencies of the transport system

Data to be collected (documentation, statistics, surveys)‏

Maps, aerial photos,

Physical (including ITS) and service characteristics of all transport networks

Urban planning existing documentation and projects

Location and characteristics of specific traffic generators

Socio-economic data (population, employment, car ownership…)‏

Transport surveys (household surveys – see special training by CERTU -, counts, origin-destination, car parking, travel times, location of congestion…)‏

Safety data (accidents)‏

Environmental problems…

17

slide18

Methodology / Phase 1: Data Collection & Diagnosis

Examples 1:

socio-economics

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Strong population growth / suburban sprawl²

Car ownership increases with the distance to the centre

18

slide19

Methodology / Phase 1: Data Collection & Diagnosis

Examples 2:

structure of trips

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

The household survey makes appear the main problems to be solved

A more accurate analysis of the household survey shows that inside four areas in the suburb half of the trips stay inside each of these areas

19

slide20

Modal Split

2004

2007

2004

2007

All modes

Mechanical modes

Walk

23.0%

23.1%

Bikes

4.9%

5.6%

6.4%

7.3%

Car passenger

13,1%

12.0%

17.0%

15.6%

Car driver

49,6%

47.0%

64.4%

61.1%

Public transport

9,4%

12.4%

12.2%

16.1%

TOTAL

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Methodology / Phase 1: Data Collection & Diagnosis

Examples 3:

use of metro

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

The opening of a second metro line has got a huge impact upon modal split…

However, only 35-40% of the population is served by metro

20

slide21

Distribution of financing mechanical modes in Paris area

households

companies

public authorities

actors

public transportation

private car

Methodology / Phase 1: Data Collection & Diagnosis

Example 4:

transport costs

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

households

companies

public authorities

actors

public transportation

private car

Because of suburban sprawl and intensive car use, the biggest part of transport costs is paid by households

21

slide22

Methodology / Phase 2: Objectives and general cpncept

Type of questions to be answered by local leaders

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • What urban development within 20 years?
    • Volume and location of population and employment?
    • Type of town planning (dense, spread, one or several centres, mixed or specialized – population, employment - areas…) ?
  • What place for each mode (car, public transport, walk, bike…) in the various areas of the City?
  • What role for car in the centre?
  • What use for the various rings (if any)?
  • What objectives in terms of emission of greenhouse effect gas?
  • Who has to pay for transport?

22

slide23

Methodology / Phase 2: Objectives and general cpncept

Constraints to be taken into account

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Functional: some measures may produce bad effects
  • Time: concrete actions must be decided quickly why some measures need long time
  • Money: of course!
  • People: the transport policy must be acceptable

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Methodology / Phase 2: Objectives and general concept

Type of possible schemes (for the various modes separately and combined)‏

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Radial?
  • Radio-concentric?
  • Networking?

1 change, long trips

1 or 2 changes, short trips

1 change, short trips

24

slide25

Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

4 main types of complementary tools

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

1. Long-term actions

Consistent transport & town planning policies

2. Orientating the transport demand

Transport masterplan (city, firms)‏

E-ways of life

Tolls (infrastructures, areas…)‏

Car parking

Multimodal ticket

Public transport fare

Action for walk and bike

Carless spaces

Control and punishment

3. Improving transport services

  • Intermodal nodes
  • Improving PT services
  • Ticketting/Information
  • Dynamic management of road
  • Carpooling, carsharing…
  • Taxis…

4. Developing transport supply

  • Metro, tramway, BRT, bus
  • Roads
  • Using railways for urban trips

25

slide26

Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Some tools: Town Planning

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Town Planning is the first lever to be used in order to master or reduce car using :
    • Consistence between transport masterplan and town planning
    • At the scale of local area developments
  • The town planners have to consider
    • Density vs urban sprowl
    • Mixed areas (housing and activities) vs specialized areas
    • One center or several hierarchized centers

26

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Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

27

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Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Some tools: Use the modes complementarity

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

28

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Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Some tools: Developing Public Transport

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • At City scale
    • Developing complementary networks
    • Organizing intermodal nodes
    • Finding financing sources
  • At area scale
    • Sharing space
    • Multimodal information
  • At individual scale
    • Fighting poor image
    • Comfort, safety, price...

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slide30

Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Some tools: Levers to master road traffic

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Developing a car parking policy
    • Easy and efficient ☺
    • Discrimination by time ☺
    • But sometimes unpopular ☹
    • Difficulty to master private car parking ☹
  • Urban toll
    • Flexible ☺
    • A financing source ☺
    • Discrimination by money ☹
    • Difficult and expensive to operate ☹

30

slide31

Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Some tools: Developing « light » modes (Walk, Bike)‏

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • At City scale
    • Developing long-distance routes (continuity)‏
    • Reducing urban breaks, defining a network
  • At area scale
    • Thinking of pedestrians and bikers (cyclists)‏
    • Sharing public space
    • Creating short ways for pedestrians and bikers
  • At individual scale
    • Fighting poor image
    • Health

31

slide32

Methodology / Phase 3: Tools, planning, programming…

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Planning
    • Long-term scheme
    • General orientation
  • Programming
    • Medium-term programme
    • Pluri-annual financing
  • Phasing
    • Adaptation to transport needs
    • Adaptation to financial capabilities

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Methodology / Remarks

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

  • Consultation
    • Various authorities must find a concensus
    • Public consultation: compulsory in France (PDU)
  • Modelling
    • A support decision tool
    • Enables evaluation (carbon assessment)
  • Communication
    • Necessity to explain policies
    • Acting upon individual behaviours

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Methodology / Remarks

Presentation

Range of Services

Our references

Methodology

Why modelling traffic and mobility?

  • Choices are made by politic leaders whoneedadecision support tool
    • Complexphenomena, now and in the future
    • Important impact of investmentsupon people life and public finances
    • A model enables to know the sensitivity to variousparameters
  • A model isnecessarelyschematic but it must not be a caricature
    • Must bebased on reality (importance of fieldsurveys)
    • Must be transparent (data, assumptions)
    • Must beconsidered as a toolusedwithcriticalthinking
  • A model is not a simple software but a complexprocess, including:
    • Data bases
    • Mathematic formula
    • Computer tools
    • Urban and socio-economicanalysis and assumptions
    • Criticalanalysis of results, riskanalysis

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