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Mountain goat 15. Bighorn sheep 32. Cougar 188. Game Bird Harvests in ... Hunters spent $23 Billion in direct expenses. Ripple effect of $73 Billion. Generated $3.1 ...

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Role of Hunting in Wildlife Management

Dr. Kenneth J. Raedeke

Affiliate Professor

University of Washington


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Traditional Roles of Hunting

  • Harvest resources (meat, hides, etc.)

  • Manage wildlife populations

  • Reduce problem species

  • Provide recreational opportunities

  • Economic return to society


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North American Wildlife Management Model

  • Wildlife as a public trust resource

  • Elimination of markets for game

  • Allocation of wildlife by law

  • Kill only for legitimate purpose

  • Wildlife is an international resource

  • Science-based wildlife policy

  • Democracy of hunting


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Current Big Game Harvests in Washington State (2008)

  • Deer 35,040

  • Elk 6,826

  • Moose 74

  • Black bear 2,115

  • Mountain goat 15

  • Bighorn sheep 32

  • Cougar 188


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Game Bird Harvests in Washington State (2008)

  • Wild turkey 5,035

  • Pheasants 20,000

  • Band-tailed pigeons 434

  • Doves 68,735

  • Ducks 410,000

  • Geese 74,045

  • Grouse & Quail 251,472


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Economic Value of Hunting(1996 Data)

  • 14 Million hunters in USA

  • Hunters spent $23 Billion in direct expenses

  • Ripple effect of $73 Billion

  • Generated $3.1 Billion in state and federal taxes

  • Created 704,600 jobs nationwide

    • Resulting in household income of $416 Billion

    • 1% of USA workforce


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Washington State Statistics(2006 data)

  • Hunters 182,000

  • Days of hunting 2,126,000

  • Total expenditures $313,134,000

  • Average $$ per hunter $1,688

  • Average $$ per Wildlife

    Viewer $563


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Pittman-Robertson Funding

  • Hunter initiated tax on firearms and ammunition of 10% in 1930

  • Generated $2 billion

  • Currently $150 million per year

  • Funds used for wildlife management by states


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Wildlife Harvest Models

  • Annual surplus model

    • Large mammals

    • Bird populations

  • Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY)

    • Large mammals (control situations)

  • Population control model

    • For pest or eruptive populations


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Annual Surplus Model

  • Hunting takes the annual surplus production that can not be supported by the habitat

  • Based on concept of compensatory mortality

    • That is, hunting mortality replaces other forms of mortality and is not additive


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Maximum Sustained Yield Model

  • Produces the highest harvest from a population

  • Reduces population to half of carrying capacity of habitat

  • Based on logistic growth model

  • Used for deer/elk damage problems on private commodity lands



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Control of Wildlife Populations

  • Snow geese in western USA and Canada

  • White tailed deer in mid-west and eastern USA

  • Deer and elk on private commodity lands


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Why do I hunt?

  • Family tradition in rural America

  • Challenge of the chase

  • Get out doors and appreciate nature

  • Spend time with friends and family

  • Obtain interesting meat and artifacts

  • Support wildlife conservation

    • License fees ( $500 per year)

    • Tax on sporting goods

  • Travel to exotic lands


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