The Diversification of Lice: Phylogeny
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Elephant, warthog & bush pig lice. Haematomyzus elephantis. 3 spp. in a single family ... (elephants, warthog & bush pig) Spread via shared use of watering ...

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The Diversification of Lice: Phylogeny

Vincent S. Smith

& Kevin P. Johnson


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Book lice (Psocoptera)

Lice (Phthiraptera)

Chewing Lice“Mallophaga”

Sucking Lice(Anoplura)

[ Liposcelis sp.]

Amblycera

Ischnocera

Rhynchophthirina

Anoplura

Louse phylogeny four years on…

  • 40+ phylogenies!

  • Now cover 80% of louse genera

  • Mix of molecules & morphology

  • Beginning to reconcile differences

  • Still a long way to go!

  • Some of the biggest studies

    unpublished


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Louse phylogeny four years on…

  • 40+ phylogenies!

  • Now cover 80% of louse genera

  • Mix of molecules & morphology

[ Liposcelis sp.]

  • Beginning to reconcile differences

Amblycera

Ischnocera

Rhynchophthirina

Anoplura

  • Still a long way to go!

  • Some of the biggest studies

    unpublished


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Menoponidae

Birds Worldwide &

Australasian Marsupials

Boopiidae

  • Few families on South American

mammals & marsupials

Laemobothriidae

Ricinidae

Trimenoponidae

Protogyropinae

South/Central Am.

Rodents & Marsupials

Gyropidae

Gyropinae

Grilicolinae

Liposcelidae (Psocoptera)

Amblycera

“Feather lice”

  • 1,350 spp. in 6 families

  • Widespread on birds

85

  • Boopiidae on Australasian marsupials

  • No new deep-branch phylogenies!

  • Mostly alpha-taxonomic work

84

  • No extensive molecular trees

Clay, 1970


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Ricinidae

100

100

93

- Hummingbirds

85

12

Laemobothriidae

3

- Falconiforms

100

100

98

100

8

61

75

15

61

1

100

96

99

3

88

9

7

89

Boopidae

Dennyus-complex

Austromenopon-complex

Colpocephalum-complex

76

90

4

- Australasian marsupials

- Birds worldwide

- Aquatic birds

- Birds worldwide

74

5

1

62

2

2

98

96

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

52

1

3

1

1

80

2

57

92

4

75

1

5

51

87

73

1

3

2

1

Menacanthus/Menopon-cpx.

64

2

57

- Birds worldwide

1

1

2

2

1

2

Amblycera

“Feather lice”

Liposcelis bostrychophilus

Trochiloecetes rupununi

Ricinus fringillae

Trochiliphagus abdominalis

Laemobothrion maximum

L

Therodoxus oweni

Boopia tarsata

Paraheterodoxus insignis

B

Latumcephalum lesouefi/macropus

Paraboopia flava

Rediella mirabilis

Actornithophilus uniseriatus

Plegadiphilus threskiornis

Chapinia robusta

Bonomiella columbae

Pseudomenopon pilosum

Ancistrona vagelli

Dennyus hirundinis

A

Myrsidea victrix

Holomenopon brevithoracicum

Eidmanniella pellucida

Machaerilaemus laticorpus/latifrons

Austromenopon crocatum

Neomenopon pteroclurus

B

M

Hohorstiella lata

Osborniella crotophagae

Eomenopon denticulatum

Piagetiella bursaepelecani

Ciconiphilus quadripustulatus

Cuculiphilus fasciatus

Ardeiphilus trochioxus

Odoriphila clayae/phoeniculi

Psittacomenopon poicephalus

C

Colpocephalum zebra

Comatomenopon elbeli/elongatum

Gruimenopon longum

Marshall, 2003

Hoazineus armiferus

Meromenopon meropis

44 genera, 147 char. (Morphology)

Trinoton anserinum

Menacanthus stramineus

Colimenopon urocolius

Parsimony, Strict consensus

Somaphantus lusius

Amyrsidea ventralis

D

Menopon gallinae

Numidicola antennatus


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Philoceanus

-complex

Saemundssonia

-complex

Philopterus

-complex

  • Historically the least studied

Goniodidae

  • Now comparatively well known

Heptap.

Lipeurus

-complex

  • Extensive molecular & morphological

    work

Degeeriella

-complex

Smith, 2001

41 genera, 138 char. (Morphology, parsimony, strict consensus)

Trichodectidae

Ischnocera

“Feather lice”

Haffneria grandis

Harrisoniella hopkinsi

Paraclisis diomedea

Perineus nigrolimbatus

  • 3,104 spp. in an uncertain no. of families

Halipeurus pelagicus

Philoceanus garrodiae

Pseudonirmus gurlti

Naubates fuliginosus

  • Widespread on birds, 381 spp on mammals

Pelmatocerandra setosa

Ardeicola smithersi

Anaticola crassicornis

Pectinopygus bassani

  • Highly host specific

    (71% on a single host species)

Pectinopygus sulae

Aquanirmus australis

Ibidoecus plataleae

Trabeculus schillingi

Craspedonirmus colymbinus

Quadraceps coenocoryphae

Docophoroides brevis

Saemundssonia desolata

Saemundssonia haematopi

Podargoecus strigoides

Alcedoecus delphax

Craspedorrhynchus platystomus

Strigiphilus vapidus

Sturnidoecus sturni

Philopterus ornatus

Vernoniella guimarãesi

Acidoproctus rostratus

Acidoproctus hilli

Rallicola lugens

Osculotes curtus

Osculotes macropoda

Coloceras damicorne

Campanulotes bidentatus

Goniocotes gallinae

Goniodes pavonis

Goniodes kéleri

Chelopistes guttatus

Austrogoniodes waterstoni

Strongylocotes angulocapitis

Discocorpus c. cephalosus

Columbicola columbae

Splendoroffula ruwenzorornis

Oxylipeurus dentatus

Cuclotogaster madagascariensis

Lipeurus caponis

Degeeriella rufa

Upupicola upupae

Lagopoecus affinis

Syrrhaptoecus falcatus

Neopsittaconirmus borgiolii

Paragoniocotes rotundus

Brüelia semiannulata

Falcolipeurus affulgeus

Archolipeurus nandu

Geomydoecus (G.) heaneyi

Felicola (F.) viverriculae

Trichodectes (T.) melis

Bovicola limbatus

Damalinia (D.) crenelata


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Wing

Non-circumfasciate

- multiple clades of lice on the same host

Head

A. Circumfasciate

B. Non-Circumfasciate

Body

Circumfasciate

N I

N II

N III

Adult

Wing

C. Wing

D. Body

E. Head

CI: 0.5

RI: 0.95

CI: 1.0

RI: 1.0

Ischnocera

“Feather lice”

  • Morphological phylogeny defined by:

- shape of the head

- body form (wing, head or body louse)

  • Major clades incongruent

    with the molecular data!


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Smith & Johnson, in prep.

All ischnceran genera, Adult & Nymphal Morph. Strict Consensus

  • Trust me, the same pattern holds!

Ischnocera

“Feather lice”


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Haematomyzus elephantis

Haematomyzus hopkinsi

Haematomyzus porci

  • Phylogeny

?

  • Only 1 species available for

    molecular work

Rhynchophthirina

Elephant, warthog & bush pig lice

  • 3 spp. in a single family

  • Confined to relatively unrelated hosts

    (elephants, warthog & bush pig)

  • Spread via shared use of watering holes?

  • Still chewing lice (telmophages)

Haematomyzus elephantis

ex Asian / African elephant


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  • 184 morphological characters

  • Well supported

  • Consistent with limited mol. data

  • Unpublished

Anoplura

Sucking lice

Rhynchophthirina

  • 540 species in 15 families

Hybophthiridae

Haematopinidae

Ratimidae

  • Confined to mammals

    (834 host species)

Linognathidae

Neolinognathidae

Microthoracidae

  • 50% confined to a single host

Echinophthiridae

  • Blood vessel feeders (solenophages)

Hamophthiridae

Pecaroecidae

Pedicinudae

Pthiridae

Pediculidae

Polyplacidae

Enderleinellidae

Smith, Strict Consensus

In Prep.

Hoplopleuridae


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except Polyplacidae

  • Other Anoplura grade into

  • Other Anoplura grade into

the rodent lice

the rodent lice

  • Strong correlation with host

taxonomy

  • Major clades are:

- primate lice

- seal lice

- ungulate lice

  • Many monogenic families

Typhlomyophthirus

Anoplura

Sucking lice

  • Rodent lice monophyletic

Rhynchophthirina

Hybophthiridae

Haematopinidae

Ratimidae

Linognathidae

Neolinognathidae

Microthoracidae

Echinophthiridae

Hamophthiridae

Pecaroecidae

Pedicinudae

Pthiridae

Pediculidae

Polyplacidae

Enderleinellidae

Hoplopleuridae


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Pediculidae

Pthiridae

Pedicinidae

Reed, Smith et al, 2004

Anoplura

Sucking lice

  • Focus on Primate lice

Rhynchophthirina

Hybophthiridae

Haematopinidae

Ratimidae

Linognathidae

Neolinognathidae

Microthoracidae

Echinophthiridae

Hamophthiridae

Pecaroecidae

Pedicinudae

Pthiridae

Pediculidae

Polyplacidae

Enderleinellidae

Hoplopleuridae


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Pediculus humanus

Human head & body louse morphology

Head Lice

Body Lice

Pediculus capitis De Geer, 1767

Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, 1758

Larger & lighter

Smaller & darker

Antennae longer & slender

Antennae shorter & thicker

Middle leg tibial length shorter

Middle leg tibial length longer

Weak indentations between abdominal segments

Below neck. Common in the seams of clothing (especially females), particularly those worn next to the skin (shirts, vests etc.). Males more commonly over garments surface.

Restricted to the hair on the scalp, particularly on the nape and in the area behind the ears. Not on the eyebrows or eyelashes.

Does not “naturally” vector disease

Vectors relapsing fever, trench fever, & epidemic typhus

Traditionally considered indistinguishable!

Killed no one

Killed millions

Vectors a category B bioterrorism agent

Does not vector a bioterrorism agent


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HdWdth

PtWdth

LgTibLgth

TBL

TBL: Total Body Length

HdWdth: Postantennal Head Width

PtWdth: Posterior Pterothoracic Width

LgTibLgth: 2nd Leg Tibial Length

Pediculus humanus

Four discriminating characters


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Females

Males

6

6

4

4

1

1

2

2

Function 2

0

0

3

Group Centroids

2

Ungrouped Cases

-2

-2

3

2

3 Pubic Lice

-4

-4

2 Head Lice

1 Body Lice

-6

-6

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

Function 1

Pediculus humanus

Discriminant function analysis

Reed, Smith et al, 2004

We can morphologically separate head & body lice

I want your pill-box specimens!!!


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Females

Males

6

6

4

4

1

1

2

2

Function 2

0

0

3

Group Centroids

2

Ungrouped Cases

-2

-2

3

2

3 Pubic Lice

-4

-4

2 Head Lice

1 Body Lice

-6

-6

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

Function 1

Pediculus humanus

Discriminant function analysis

Reed, Smith et al, 2004

Are these differences present in the molecular data?



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