The Robert S Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics ... Genetics, 4:247-265. Lewis (1951)
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Wentian Li, Ph.D
The Robert S Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics
North Shore LIJ Institute for Medical Research
March 18, 2005
“Had evolution been entirely dependent upon natural selection, from a bacterium only numerous forms of bacteria would have emerged. The creation of metazoans, vertebrates, and finally mammals from unicellular organisms would have been quite impossible, for such big leaps in evolution required the creation of new gene loci with previously nonexistent function. Only the cistron [gene] that became redundant was able to escape from the relentless pressure of natural selection. By escaping, it accumulated formerly forbidden mutations to emerge as a new gene locus.”
See Taylor & Raes (2004)
[polyploids tend to be unstable]
[then “gene” duplication is a by-product instead of a design]
[system robustness is another source]
Redundancy but…, n. : repetition or excessive use of something
1. Correlation, n.: a causal, complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship between two comparable entities
2. Correlation, n. (statistics) : the simultaneous change of two random variables
The Copy and the original gene (DNA segment) are correlated in sense 1.
Even after the decay and deletion of function of the copy gene, it is still correlated with the original in sense 2. [problem: not random variable]Redundancy and correlation
W.Li, Europhysics Letters,10:395-400 (1989);
W.Li, Physical Review A, 43:5240-6260 (1991)
The all pervasive principle of repetitious recurrence governs not only coding sequence construction but also human endeavor in musical composition
Title of a paper authored by Susumu Ohno and Midori Ohno (1996)
Voss & Clarke (1975) “1/f noise in music and speech”, Nature, 258:317-318.
“We have formerly seen that parts many times repeated are eminently liable to vary in number and structure; consequently it is quite probable that natural selection, during the long-continued course of modification, should have seized on a certain number of the primordially similar elements, many times repeated, and have adapted them to the most diverse purposes.
Charles Darwin, 1859 (The Origin of Species, page 477)