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Roots of the Conflict- religion, ethnicity and colonialism. Normans in Ireland- 1169 ... Initial Reaction of British Government to Violence in Northern Ireland ...

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Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland

1169-2005


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Great Britain and Ireland


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Roots of the Conflict- religion, ethnicity and colonialism

  • Normans in Ireland- 1169

  • Plantation of Ulster- 16th century

  • Act of Settlement 1653

  • Accession of James II 1685

  • William of Orange ascends to British throne


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King William of Orange


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Roots of the Conflict c’ntd

  • Penal Laws introduced from 1695 onwards

  • 1782- Irish Parliament received legislative independence

  • Development of Peep O’ Day Boys, Defenders, Orange Order

  • 1798- United Irishmen Rebellion

  • 1800- Act of Union

  • 1829- Catholic Emancipation


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Independence of Ireland

  • Struggle for land reforms – 1870s & 1880s

  • Irish Parliamentary Party – 1882

  • Home Rule – 1st attempt – 1885

    2nd attempt – 1893

    3rd attempt - 1914


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Partition

  • World War One – 1914

  • Government of Ireland Act – 1920

  • Irish War of Independence – 1919-1921


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Irish Free State and Northern Ireland


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Northern Ireland Parliament - Stormont


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1921-1963

  • The new NI Parliament- unstable at first, financial and political difficulties as well as inexperienced government ministers

  • Catholics took little part in new NI state- electoral discrimination, grievances in housing, policing and employment.

    “A Protestant state for a Protestant people”


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Reasons for unrest

  • 1963- arrival of Terence O’Neill as Prime Minister. Introduction of reforms. Attracted opposition from within his party as well as from Ian Paisley

  • Catholics encouraged by success of Civil Rights movement in America

  • Formation of NICRA

  • By the late 60s the peaceful protests had begun to take on a more violent nature


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Initial Reaction of British Government to Violence in Northern Ireland

  • 1969- British troops sent to Northern Ireland

  • 1970- Curfews, house searches

  • 1971- Internment

  • 1972- Bloody Sunday

  • Following this Direct Rule from Westminster was re-instated


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Responses to Terrorism

  • Power-sharing, Sunningdale – 1973-74

  • Rolling Devolution – 1982-84

  • Anglo Irish Agreement – 1985

  • Downing Street Declaration - 1993


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Aftermath from Anglo-Irish Agreement


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Looking forward

  • Good Friday Agreement – 1998


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Good Friday Agreement

  • Human Rights and Equality

  • Early release of terrorist prisoners

  • Decommissioning of paramilitary weapons

  • Reforms of criminal justice and policing.


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Good Friday Agreement, con’t

  • Three strands,

  • 1. Creation of Northern Ireland Assembly

  • 2. North-South Relationships

  • 3. East-West Relationships


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Prospects for a Functioning Local Democracy

  • Many issues still need to be resolved, such as policing, decommissioning and prisoner releases

  • Remaining hostility between political parties

  • Northern Bank robbery- suspected IRA involvement having knock-on effect for Sinn Fein- withdrawal of funding


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Prospects for a Functioning Local Democracy

  • Hopes for the future

  • Inclusive government

  • Economic development

  • Development in inter-community cultural awareness eg. through integrated schools, cross community initiatives such as BEI

  • Equal opportunity programs


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