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Enterprise Data Management Program. Description of the End Game ... We oversee (directly and indirectly) the management of the $402B loan portfolio of 80M ...

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No data left behind federal student aid a case history l.jpg

No Data Left Behind: Federal Student Aid A Case History

Holly Hyland, Federal Student Aid

Lisa Elliott, Federal Student Aid


Agenda l.jpg
Agenda

  • Federal Student Aid Overview

  • Data Strategy Initiative

  • Enterprise Data Management Program

  • Description of the End Game

  • Lessons Learned

  • DAMA Impact

  • Questions


Who we are l.jpg
Who We Are…

  • The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 established Federal Student Aid as the federal government’s first Performance Based Organization (PBO) to modernize the delivery of the Department’s Title IV federal student aid programs. As specified in the authorizing legislation, the purposes of the PBO are to:

    • Increase accountability

    • Improve service to students and parents

    • Integrate business processes and information systems

    • Strengthen program integrity

    • Reduce costs


Who we are4 l.jpg
Who We Are…

  • As a PBO, Congress grants Federal Student Aid certain limited managerial flexibilities over its human capital management, budget and procurement activities

  • Our focus is on:

    • Delivering world-class customer service

    • Developing award-winning products and services that are of value to our customers

    • Effectively managing the programs to ensure fair, effective and appropriate oversight, and service delivery at the lowest cost without sacrificing service levels or quality


Our mission l.jpg
Our Mission…

We oversee (directly and indirectly) the management of the $402B loan portfolio of 80M loans to more than 26M borrowers.

6,130 Schools

3,200 Lenders

36 Secondary

Markets

35 Guaranty

Agencies

45 3rd-Party\

Servicers

Our federal grant and loan programs represent the largest sources of student aid in the United States, annually providing approximately $74B to more than 11M students/parents, including nearly $13B in Pell Grants to the most needy students. We provide this aid through and with the nearly 10,000 program participants.


Our critical functions l.jpg
Our Critical Functions…

  • Federal Student Aid is responsible for a range of critical functions that include, among others:

    • Processing millions of student financial aid applications

    • Disbursing billions of dollars in aid funds to students through schools

    • Enforcing financial aid rules and regulations

    • Partnering with schools, financial institutions and guaranty agencies to prevent fraud, waste and abuse

    • Educating students and families about the process of obtaining aid

    • Servicing millions of student loan accounts

    • Securing repayment from borrowers who have defaulted on their loans

    • Operating information technology systems and tools that manage billions in student aid dollars


Our environment l.jpg
Our Environment

  • FSA's technology environment is understandably complex:

    • 21 different information systems provide services.

    • 140 internal exchange points across FSA’s computing environment, and 175 external exchange points entering into our environment.

  • 60 million FAFSA’s processed a year – 97% on-line applications

    • Different identifiers are used to identify partners based upon particular system and type of business transaction.

    • Multiple procedures required to enroll and register for access to FSA systems.

    • FSA systems require different user credentials and enforce different policies using different User ID formats.


Our integration challenge l.jpg
Our Integration Challenge

  • The Higher Education Act (HEA) legislation of 1998 specifically called on Federal Student Aid to integrate, and defined three principal goals with respect to integration of Federal Student Aid’s information systems:

    • To integrate the information systems supporting the Federal student financial assistance programs.

    • To implement an open, common, integrated system for the delivery of student financial assistance under Title IV.

    • To develop and maintain a student financial assistance system that contains complete, accurate, and timely data to ensure program integrity.


Enterprise architecture l.jpg
Enterprise Architecture

Business Architecture

Strategy & PRM

Alignment

BRM

Shared Business

Processes

Information Architecture

Data Architecture

DRM

Shared Data

Technology Policies Standards

And Products Guide

Governance

(CPIC and Business / Technology Alignment)

Application Architecture

Application

Portfolio

SRM

Shared

Services

Technology Architecture

Technology

Inventories

Shared

Infrastructure

TRM

Security Architecture




Slide12 l.jpg

Information Exchange

A single access point for online information and services for

Federal Student Aid customers, partners, and the general public



Getting to the data l.jpg
Getting to the Data

  • 2000 Modernization Blueprint – “the wall”

  • 2003 Terry Shaw (former COO) – “the data is missing”

  • Representatives from all business areas “vision without constraint” to determine how things should work.

    • Bumblebee Chart (Integration Vision Framework)

    • Target State Vision (TSV)

  • 2004 Data Strategy

  • 2006 Enterprise Data Management


Evolution to the target state l.jpg
Evolution to the Target State

Awareness

Application

Origination

Disbursement

Servicing

Institution

Servicing

Aid Awareness & Application

Delivery

cycle

Phase

Life-

Participation

Application

Origination

& Disbursement

Common Services

for Borrowers

Process

Applicant/

Borrower

Aid Education

Submission

Eligibility

Repayment

Consolidation

Collections

Student Aid on the Web

Inbound Payment Processing

Default Aversion

Call Centers

Application Processing

- Electronic Processing

- Paper Processing & Fulfillment

Award Processing

Consolidations

Performance

Mgmnt*

School Payments (Pass-Through)

- Student Based Pymnt Calcs

- Payments & Tracking

Loan Assignment Processing

EAI

Death, Disability & Bankruptcy

Applicant/Recipient Eligibility

- Electronic Processing

- Paper Processing/Fulfillment

Enterprise

Delinquency

Mgmnt

Application

Disbursement Processing

Integration

Accounting

ITA

Funding Level Management

- Award Processing

- Calc & Monitor Funding Chngs

Integrated

Collections

Borrower Refund Processing

Technical

Architecture

Performance Mgmnt*

VDC

Common Services for Borrowers

Origination & Disbursement

Virtual

Data Center

Award & Disbursement

P-Note Processing

School Aid Payments &

FSA

Service

Recovery &

Funding Level Mgmt

Student Authentication & Access Mgmnt

Processing

Loans

Resolution

Student Authentication & Access Mgmnt

Partner Management

Partner

Partner Eligibility

Trading Partner Management

Enrollment

& Oversight

Application for Participation

Oversight

- Closed School Processing

- Ongoing Monitoring

- Risk Management

- Oversight Reviews/Actions

- Accountability For Funds

- Default Rate Calculations

Partner Eligibility

Enrollment/Access Mgmnt

Funds & Internal

Financial Management

Controls

Participation Management

Performance Mgmnt*

FSA Gateway

Schools Portal

Financial Partners Portal

Help Desk

Bulk Payment Calcs

- ACA Payments to Schools

Partner Payment Processing

Payments & Tracking

Partners &

Lenders

Servicers

Trading

Guaranty Agencies

State Agencies

Schools

(Lender Servicers)

( School Servicers)

Support Functions

Other External Partners

Enterprise Performance Management

- Contract Management

- Acquisition & Planning Strategy

- Performance Analytics & Reporting

To-Be Financial

ED

Department of Education

Aid Life Cycle

Financial Management

- Accounting

- External Financial Reporting

- Funds Control

- Budget

- Internal Controls

Business Process Awareness

- Counseling

- Awareness

Portfolio Data Management

- Aggregated Recipient Data

- Program Analytics & Reporting

Partner Application

DRAFT

Internal Transfer

Partner

Process

Trading

High-Level Business View

Origination &

Oversight

Disbursement

Eligibility

Participation

Oversight

Monitoring

Management

The Target State outlines the vision to achieve integration.

Enterprise Analytics and Research

Case Tracking

Recommend

Acquisition &

Enterprise Performance

Analytics

(Ombudsman)

Policy Changes

Planning Strategy

Management

Audit

Send/Receive from Matching Agencies

Generate/Distribute ISIR/SAR

Credit Check

Transfer Monitoring

Process Promissory Notes

Servicing Reporting (FFEL & Campus Based)

SSCR

Enablers

History

Common Data Architecture

NSLDS

Functions

Enterprise Shared

Enterprise Shared

Functions

FMS

Trading

Students

Warehouse/Data Marts

Partners

Transactions

Distribute Eligibility

Computation Edits - EFC

RID Mappings

Authentication & Access Management

Partner Payment Calculation/PrePopulation

CDR

SSIM Logic

Match Against CDA (FAH)

Edit Checks

Application

Establish

Consolidate

Aid

Aid Eligibility

Person

CSB

Loans

Awareness

Determination

Record

Authentication &

Access Tools

Application

Relationship

Process

Mgmt

Business

Intelligence Tools

Payment

Partner Payment

State Agency

Partner Payment Management

Processing

Admin

Funding

Ancillary Services

Process

External Financial

GL

AR Management

Budgeting

Payments

Reporting

Accounting

FMSS

GAPS

Business Function

External Transfer

Integration Vision Framework

Business Architecture

Enterprise Target State

Business Architecture Drives Technology Solution


The target state vision l.jpg
The Target State Vision

Federal Student Aid Target State Vision

e

Institution

e

-

s

l

e

Aid Awareness & Application

Servicing

c

Aid Delivery

a

f

i

y

h

Participation

L

c

P

r

t

e

s

n

s

a

w

e

c

o

i

c

r

l

Aid Education

Submission

Eligibility

Repayment

Consolidation

r

o

p

o

r

p

P

B

A

/

Student Portal

Call Centers

Authentication

Access

Tools

Enterprise Analytics and Research

Collections

Enablers

Financial Aid

History

Financial Aggregates

& Reporting

Data

Marts

Student Aid History Management

ESB

Enterprise

Service Bus

Business

Intelligence

Tools

s

Acquisition &

Planning Strategy

Budget Formulation

Credit Report

Ombudsman

Case Research

Recommend

Policy Changes

Distribute School Eligibility

/

Review Information

Calculate EFC

Enterprise Performance

Management

n

Distribute Student Eligibility

d

Audit History

Common Logic Edit Checks

Run Credit Check

Integrated School View

Integrated Student View

B

Analytics

e

o

E

u

r

i

t

n

s

a

c

t

i

h

e

CDA/ODS

(NSLDS II)

n

n

r

S

Information Framework

EDW

e

u

p

/

s

e

F

r

s

i

ITA

Integrated

Technical

Architecture

Ancillary

Services

s

Monitor Aid

Eligibility

Student Enrollment

Reporting

s

s

Default Rate

Calculation

i

F

s

e

r

/

Person

u

p

Org

e

Analytical Data

S

r

n

n

e

h

Transactions

i

c

t

s

n

a

t

i

u

r

o

E

e

B

n

d

Generate

/

Distribute ISIR

/

SAR Data

Manage Promissory Notes

Aggregate Relevant Information

/

Determine Student Eligibility

RID Legacy Identifier Crosswalk

Send

Receive from Matching Agencies

SSIM Logic

/

s

VDC

Virtual

Data Center

Content

Management

Application

Origination & Disbursement

Common Services for Borrowers

Metadata

Repository

Communications

Campus-Based

School Aid Payments &

Funding Level Management

Aid

Awareness

Aid Eligibility

Determination

Establish

Person Record

Integrated Partner Management

Award & Disbursement

Processing

Service

Debts

Recovery &

Resolution

Consolidate

Loans

Press

Releases

Partner Payment and Reporting Management

Publications

Application

Funding

Manage

Eligibility

Partner Participation

& Enrollment

Financial Management

Conference

Planning

Oversight

Enterprise Access Management

Lender Payment &

Reporting Administration

Guaranty Agency Payment &

Reporting Administration

State Agency

Funding

Federal Student Aid Gateway

Receivables

Management

Payables

Management

Funds

Management

Financial

Reporting

Schools Portal

Financial Partners Portal

Help Desk

State Agencies

Schools (School Servicers)

Lenders (School Servicers)

Guaranty Agencies

Other External Partners

Target State Vision

High-Level Business

View of the

Financial Aid Lifecycle

Revised Sept 2005

Department of Education

OIG

OPE

One Financial

GAPS

Partner

Application

Internal Transfer

Business Function

Origination &

Disbursement

External Transfer

Oversight


Data strategy purpose l.jpg
Data Strategy Purpose

Develop an overall approach towards data to ensure that accurate and consistent data is available to and exchanged between Federal Student Aid and our customers, partners, and compliance and oversight organization.

  • Get the Right Information

  • To the Right Person

  • At the Right Place and Time

  • At the Right Cost


Data strategy initiatives l.jpg
Data Strategy Initiatives

Data Framework

As-Is and Target State Data Flows

Refine Target State Vision

Data Quality Mad Dog

Develop Quality Assurance Strategy

Implement Data Quality Assurance Strategy

XML Framework

Develop XML ISIR

Develop XML Registry / Repository

Production Deployment of XML Registry / Repository

Common Identification

Standard Student Identification Method

Routing ID

Trading Partner Enrollment and Access

Enrollment and Access Management

Technical Strategies

Data Storage, Web Services, Web Usage, and FSA Gateway

Web Consolidation Options

Enterprise Analytics Architecture

CDA Operating Guidelines

Data Strategy evolved into the integration of five core initiatives:


Data strategy key findings l.jpg
Data Strategy Key Findings

The Data Strategy team confirmed several key findings:

  • Data should be organized by business process, not by system.

  • Providing data access to business experts is the key component of improving the enterprise’s ability to make informed business decisions.

  • Need to develop a single enterprise solution for all trading partner/person identification and access.

  • “As-Is” data flow discussions have facilitated a broader understanding of end-to-end business processes across all Federal Student Aid program areas.


Benefits of the xml framework to data quality l.jpg
Benefits of the XML Framework to Data Quality

Federal Student Aid will use XML, via a single set of enterprise and community standards, to simplify and streamline data exchange across postsecondary education.

Benefits

  • Data Exchange Standard – Standardize FSA’s data exchange using XML as the data exchange technology standard.

  • Consistent Accurate Data – Define data standards, as XML Core Components, for data exchange to achieve consistent and accurate data.

  • Standard Data Tools and Processes – Establish standard data tools and processes to support consistently performed data/XML modeling.

  • Ease of Maintenance – Simplify future interface changes, and support new application and data exchange requirements, through standardized XML-based data modeling.


Enterprise data management l.jpg
Enterprise Data Management

  • Formalized October, 2006

  • Building off of the work that we’ve been doing informally for the last four years with PESC and adding formal discipline with the Data Management Body of Knowledge (DMBOK)

  • EDM is a service to the business with the following goals:

    • Support the improvement of enterprise analytics and

    • Decrease the cost of and improve the quality of new development projects

    • Focus on data as an enterprise asset.


Enterprise data management22 l.jpg
Enterprise Data Management

  • Three year strategy:

    • Concentrate on fundamentals and foundation/communication materials.

    • Start an Enterprise Data Governance Workgroup and improve and expand Metadata Management.

    • Develop and implement Data Quality policies and procedures (started in year two).



Data policy and strategic planning l.jpg
Data Policy and Strategic Planning

Defines EDM strategic direction and promotes compliance with EDM policies, procedures and standards.

  • Drafted of an EDM Strategic Plan.

  • Developed an EDM Concept of Operations.

  • Drafted Enterprise Data Policies.

  • Developed EDM Language for inclusion into Contracts.

  • Maintained EDM Business Case.

  • Published Performance Metrics.



Data governance l.jpg
Data Governance

Implements data governance processes to maintain standardized data definitions and associated metadata.

  • Started two years ago with a Data Governance Pilot tackling – Enterprise Address.

  • Developed Data Standardization Policies and Procedures.

  • Developed Data Dictionary Standards.

  • Developed Data Governance Plan.

  • Formed Enterprise Data Governance Workgroup.

  • Business people agreed to learn basic to intermediate data modeling concepts.

  • Joint development of data-related artifacts with business and technical staff.


Data governance framework l.jpg
Data Governance Framework

Data Governance Management Structure

Requires:

  • Collaboration

  • Commitment

  • Consistency

Executive

Council

Escalation Path

Enterprise Data Management

Program Management, Quality Assurance

Strategic Steering

Committee

Tactical Working Group



Metadata management l.jpg
Metadata Management

Uses metadata to guide, control and integrate data activities and products.

  • Donated metadata registry, the XML Registry and Repository for the Education Community, to the Education Community of Interest.

    • www.fsaxmlregistry.ed.gov

  • Published as Open Source on SourceForge.

    • http://sourceforge.net/projects/fsaxmlregistry/

  • Classification scheme extends beyond that used by Federal Student Aid.

  • Promotes use of common standards across the Education Community of Interest.



Metadata management31 l.jpg
Metadata Management

Uses metadata to guide, control and integrate data activities and products.

  • Developed Enterprise Metadata Inventory.

  • Developing Master Data Management.

  • Purchased and testing IBM Information Server.


Data architecture l.jpg
Data Architecture

Promotes sharing of database assets, the use of an integrated architecture to support enterprise-wide data movement, access to common data, data transformation and migration.

  • Developed an Enterprise Conceptual Data Model (signed off by the business areas).

  • Developing Enterprise Logical Data Model.

  • Data Modeling Standards and Procedures.

  • Developed Naming Standards.

  • Developed Data Model Registration Policies and Procedures.

  • Developed Data Migration Roadmap: A Best Practice Summary.

  • Developed Data Synchronization Policies and Procedures.

  • Researched Data Integration Services Best Practices and Recommendation.


Data quality l.jpg
Data Quality

Institutionalizes a set of repeatable processes to continuously monitor data and improve data accuracy, completeness, timeliness and relevance.

  • Developed Enterprise Data Quality Scorecard

  • Building upon previous work (Data Quality Assurance Strategy) to promote reuse

  • Developing Data Quality Policies and Procedures

  • Planning a Data Quality service for the for business areas (data profiling services, etc)


Future areas of focus l.jpg
Future Areas of Focus

  • The US Department of Education

    • Develop US Dept of ED Enterprise Conceptual Data Model – created from the business areas.

    • Form US Dept of ED Data Governance Workgroup.

    • Encourage PK12 and Postsecondary data alignment.

    • Encourage and contribute to PK 20 Data Standardization and Education Taxonomy.


When we ll be done l.jpg
When We’ll Be Done

  • Federal Student Aid is a proactive organization with sophisticated enterprise analytics that are used to inform Congress and help determine new policy.

  • An Education Taxonomy is not a misunderstood word.

  • Enterprise Data Artifacts are complete, of high-quality and used by the business areas often.

  • Federal Student Aid “owns” its data and it’s organized by Business Capability Area, Business Function, and Data. This information is in the SOW for development projects and creates high-quality, lower cost development.


Lessons learned l.jpg
Lessons Learned

  • If it’s not in business (plain) language and/or it’s not clear how it supports the business – EDM doesn’t pay for it.

  • True change takes time. Period.

  • The technology is not the hard part – the people part is the hard part. Have someone who’s really, really good with the soft skills at the table.

  • Luck is not a good business strategy.

  • Little and often.

  • It really does help when you have consistency of staff.

  • Collaboration is so worth the time it takes.

  • Business areas and Technologists can work together and develop really, really good work.


Dama impact l.jpg
DAMA Impact

  • Changed CONOPS after researching DMBOK.

  • Developed data definition standards after attending “The Dictionary: Heart of Data Quality.”

  • Felt better about EDM coming from a business area after attending “Mastering Master Data.”

  • Prioritized Data Quality work from year three to year two after attending “Introduction to Data Quality Tools and Technologies.”

  • Purchased “Data Modeling Made Simple” for members of Data Governance Workgroup.

  • Changed data models after attending “Make Your Data Model Diagram Really Communicate.”


Closing remark l.jpg
Closing Remark

  • As you can gather from our presentation, Federal Student Aid’s data work did not begin as a mature Enterprise Data Management Program; in fact, it began in chaos. However, over time:

    • Opportunities were identified,

    • Huge goals were set,

    • Communities of interest were engaged

    • Purpose was communicated

    • Strategic decisions were made

    • Crazy ideas were tried and evaluated

    • Best practices were researched

    • Mistakes were made and course corrections were implemented

    • Baby steps were accomplished

    • Everyone was heard and valued


Questions l.jpg
Questions

We appreciate your feedback and comments.

  • Holly Hyland; Phone: 202-377-3710

    Email: [email protected]

  • Lisa Elliott; Phone: 202-377-4454

    Email: [email protected]


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