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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e. 2. Operating Systems. Computers have two ... to control and interact with a specific type of computer hardware ...

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operating systems
Operating Systems
  • Computers have two fundamental components:
    • Hardware: Physical components inside a computer
    • Software: Set of instructions or programs that understand how to use the hardware of the computer in a meaningful way

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

operating systems continued
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Hardware components include:
    • Processor (CPU)
    • Physical memory (RAM)
    • Hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM drives
    • Sound and video cards
    • Circuit boards

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

operating systems continued4
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Two different types of programs are executed on a computer:
    • Applications
    • Operating system (OS) software
  • Device Driver: Software containing instructions that the OS uses to control and interact with a specific type of computer hardware
  • User Interface: An application program that allows the user to interact with the OS and other application programs

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

operating systems continued5
Operating Systems (continued)

Figure 1-1: The role of operating system software

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operating systems continued6
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Graphical user interface (GUI): Component of an OS that provides a user-friendly interface
  • System services: Applications that handle system-related tasks
    • Printing
    • Scheduling programs
    • Network access

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

operating systems continued7
Operating Systems (continued)

Figure 1-2: A Linux graphical user interface

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

the linux operating system
The Linux Operating System
  • OS used to run a variety of applications on a variety of different hardware
  • Has the ability to manage thousands of tasks at the same time
  • Allows multiple users to access the system simultaneously
    • Multiuser and multitasking OS

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

versions of the linux operating system
Versions of the Linux Operating System
  • Core component is called the Linux kernel
    • Written almost entirely in the C programming language
  • Software can be used to modify appearance of Linux, but the kernel is common to all Linux

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

identifying kernel versions
Identifying Kernel Versions
  • Linux kernel versions are composed of:
    • Major number
    • Minor number
      • If odd, referred to as a developmental kernel
      • If even, referred to as a production kernel
    • Revision number

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

identifying kernel versions continued
Identifying Kernel Versions (continued)

Table 1-1: Latest revisions of common Linux kernels

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

licensing linux
Licensing Linux
  • Open Source Software (OSS): Programs distributed and licensed so that the source code is available to anyone who wants to examine, utilize, or improve upon it
    • Format and structure of source code follows rules defined by the programming language in which it was written

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

licensing linux continued
Licensing Linux (continued)
  • Implications of OSS:
    • Developed very rapidly through widespread collaboration
    • Bugs (errors) are noted and promptly fixed
    • Features evolve quickly based on users’ needs
    • Perceived value of the software increases because it is based on usefulness, not on price

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

licensing linux continued14
Licensing Linux (continued)

Table 1-2: Software types

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

types of closed source licenses
Types of Closed Source Licenses
  • Most closed source software is sold commercially
    • e.g., Microsoft or Electronic Arts software
  • Freeware: Distributed free of charge; source code is not available
  • Shareware: Initially free, but requires payment after a period of time or usage

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux advantages meeting business needs
Linux Advantages:Meeting Business Needs
  • Common software available for Linux includes:
    • Scientific and engineering software
    • Software emulators
    • Web servers, Web browsers, and e-commerce suites
    • Desktop productivity software
    • Graphics manipulation software
    • Database software
    • Security software

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux advantages ease of customization
Linux Advantages:Ease of Customization
  • Ability to control the inner workings of an OS
    • To use Linux as an Internet Web server, compile the kernel to include only the support needed to be an Internet Web server
      • Results in a much smaller and faster kernel

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux advantages ease of obtaining support
Linux Advantages: Ease of Obtaining Support
  • Linux documentation can be found on the Internet
    • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
    • HOWTO documents
  • Linux Newsgroups
  • Linux User Group (LUG): Open forum of Linux users who discuss and assist each other in using and modifying the Linux OS

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux advantages cost reduction
Linux Advantages: Cost Reduction

Table 1-3:Calculating the total cost of ownership

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the history of linux
The History of Linux

Figure 1-4: Timeline of UNIX and Linux development

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slide21
UNIX
  • Evolved from Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (MULTICS)
  • The first true multitasking, multiuser OS
  • Written in the C programming language
    • Portable OS
  • OS from which Linux originated

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

unix continued
UNIX (continued)
  • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
    • Version of the original UNIX source code
  • Common flavors of UNIX today include:
    • Sun Microsystems’s Solaris
    • Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX
    • IBM’s AIX UNIX

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux
Linux
  • First developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991
    • Published under the GNU license
  • Linux kernel developed collaboratively and centrally managed
    • Linux is simply a by-product of OSS development

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux distributions
Linux Distributions
  • Red Hat and SuSE
  • Distributions may appear different on the surface, but run the same kernel
  • Most distributions ship with a GUI that can be further customized to suit needs of the user
    • Core component of this GUI is X Windows

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux distributions continued
Linux Distributions (continued)
  • GUI environment: X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment
  • Two competing GUI environments in Linux:
    • GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
    • Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux distributions continued26
Linux Distributions (continued)

Figure 1-5: The GNOME Desktop

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common uses of linux
Common Uses of Linux
  • May be customized to provide services for a variety of companies in a variety of situations
  • Workstation services: Services used on a local computer
  • Server services: Services made available for other computers across a network

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

internet servers mail services
Internet Servers: Mail Services
  • Mail transfer agent (MTA): An e-mail server
  • Mail delivery agent (MDA): Service that downloads e-mail from an MTA
  • Mail user agent (MUA): Program that allows e-mail to be read by a user

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

internet servers routing and ftp services
Internet Servers:Routing and FTP Services
  • Routing: Provides interconnection between separate networks
    • Core service necessary for Internet to function
    • Linux provides support for routing and is easily customizable
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Services: Most common and efficient method for transferring files over the Internet

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

internet servers firewalls and proxy services
Internet Servers:Firewalls and Proxy Services
  • Firewall: Protects companies from outside intruders on the Internet
    • Linux has firewall support built into the kernel
  • Proxy server: requests Internet resources such as Web sites and FTP sites on behalf of the computer inside the company

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

internet servers web services and news services
Internet Servers:Web Services and News Services
  • Web services: Web servers host information (text, pictures, music, binary data, and video)
    • Can also process programs known as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts and provide secure connections
  • News services: News servers allow users to post messages in forums called newsgroups
    • Most Web servers do not provide means for users to communicate

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

internet servers dns services
Internet Servers: DNS Services
  • Computers communicating on a network need to be uniquely identified
    • Each computer is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address
      • Long string of numbers
      • Allows computers to identify and reference each other
  • Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN): Masks IP addresses with user-friendly names

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

file and print servers
File and Print Servers
  • Linux is well-suited for centrally sharing resources
    • More economical to share files and printers over a network
    • Inherently fast and light
    • A distribution specific to a certain task can be installed on the central server

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

application servers
Application Servers
  • Application server: Intermediary between a client computer and a database
  • Database: Organized collection of data that is arranged into tables of related information
  • Database Management Systems (DBMS): Set of programs designed for creation, modification, manipulation, maintenance, and access of information from databases

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

linux guide to linux certification second edition35

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition

Chapter 2

Preparing for Linux Installation

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe common types of hardware and their features
  • Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware central processing units cpus
Understanding Hardware:Central Processing Units (CPUs)
  • Core component of any computer
    • Also known as microprocessor or processor
  • Two main components:
    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here
    • Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processor’s integral electronics
  • Two main processor architectures:
    • Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
    • Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued39
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor
    • Determines speed that processor executes commands
    • Measured in Megahertz (MHz)
  • A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar
  • Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed
    • Measured in binary digits (bits)
    • The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued40
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Cache: Temporary store of information
    • Cache size and location affect a processor’s ability to calculate larger volumes of data
  • Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself
  • Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip
    • Connected to processor via high speed link
  • Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip
    • Connected directly to processor

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued41
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Multiple processors can work together
    • Perform the same tasks faster
    • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task
    • ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory
  • Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor
  • Two main categories:
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
      • Volatile memory
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM
  • Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information
  • Directly related to computer performance
  • Two major categories:
    • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
    • Static RAM (SRAM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram continued
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM (continued)
  • Three main types of DRAM sticks:
    • Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM)
      • No longer produced
    • Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM)
    • Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM)
      • Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram continued45
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM (continued)
  • Three recent DIMM technologies:
    • Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)
    • Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM)
    • Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory rom
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―ROM
  • Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to
    • Nonvolatile
  • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory rom variants
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―ROM Variants
  • Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once
  • Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole
  • Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives
  • Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits
    • Hard disk
    • Floppy disk
    • CD-ROM, DVD
    • CD-RW, DVD-RW disk
    • Zip disk
    • Flash Memory

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hard disk drives
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―Hard Disk Drives
  • Not directly wired to the processor
    • Pass through a hard disk controller card
      • Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD)
  • Two types of controller cards:
    • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
      • Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers
    • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)

Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations

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understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued51
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)
  • Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive
  • Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself
    • A partition must be formatted with a filesystem

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued52
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)
  • Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions
  • Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives
  • Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk
    • Stored outside of all partitions

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued53
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)

Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD

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understanding hardware disk drives other information storage devices
Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives―Other Information Storage Devices
  • Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer
    • Transferable between computers
  • Floppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically
    • Used in floppy disk drives
  • Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks
    • Can store much more information
    • Used in zip drives

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understanding hardware disk drives other information storage devices continued
Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives―Other Information Storage Devices (continued)
  • DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses
    • Greater data transfer speed
    • Larger storage capacity
    • More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks
  • Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components
  • Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard
  • Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board
  • Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer
    • e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs)
    • Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard

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understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Three common slots for peripheral devices:
    • Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz
      • Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA)
    • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz
      • Designed for video card peripherals

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understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued58
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)

Figure 2-1: Mainboard components

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understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued59
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard
    • PS/2
    • COM (Serial)
    • LPT
    • USB
    • IEEE1394 (Firewire)
    • PCMCIA

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understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued60
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality
  • Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued61
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU
  • Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device
  • Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors
  • Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor
    • Commonly referred to as video cards
  • Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen
  • Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen

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understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors continued
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)

Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths

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understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors continued64
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)
  • Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed
    • Measured in Hertz (Hz)
    • Two types of refresh rates:
      • HSync (horizontal refresh)
      • VSync (vertical refresh)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware keyboards and mice
Understanding Hardware:Keyboards and Mice
  • Facilitates user input and direction
  • Variety of ways to connect to motherboard
    • Serial port
    • Large circular AT 5-pin connector
    • Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector
    • USB connection
    • Wireless or radio connection
  • Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering preinstallation information
Gathering Preinstallation Information

Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements

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gathering preinstallation information continued
Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)

Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist

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gathering preinstallation information continued68
Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)

Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information
Gathering Hardware Information
  • Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist:
    • Computer manuals
    • Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed)
    • Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)

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gathering hardware information continued
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool

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gathering hardware information continued71
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager

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gathering hardware information continued72
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet

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gathering hardware information continued73
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)

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gathering hardware information continued74
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility

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gathering software information
Gathering Software Information
  • Identifying system network configuration:
    • Hostname
    • IP address
    • Netmask
    • Gateway
    • DNS servers
      • Resolve FQDNs

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gathering software information continued
Gathering Software Information (continued)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers
    • If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network

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gathering software information continued77
Gathering Software Information (continued)

Table 2-6: Common Linux packages

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gathering software information continued78
Gathering Software Information (continued)

Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

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