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3D tree visualizations. Pseudo 2D tree visualizations. Constituent ... John found the letter and Bill signed the letter. I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue. I gave a ...

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Cmc cc a information visualization l.jpg
CMC/CC AInformation Visualization

Master IK, CIW, MMI

L.M. Bosveld-de Smet

Mon. 20/11/06; 16.00-18.00


Information visualization for the general public l.jpg
Information visualizationfor the general public

  • IV is moving out of research laboratories

  • IV is reaching users

  • Examples:

  • http://www.peets.com

  • http://www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus

  • http://www.sytadin.tm.fr


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Information Visualization Tools

  • IV is still a novelty for many users

  • Potential and limitations

  • Reports of usability studies and controlled experiments

    • Faster task completion

    • Reduced error rates

  • Measurable benefits

  • Current evaluation practices


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Current evaluation practicesPlaisant (2004)

  • Controlled experiments comparing design elements

  • Usability evaluation of a tool

  • Controlled experiments comparing two or more tools

  • Case studies of tools in realistic settings


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Three tree visualization tools

  • SpaceTree

  • Hyperbolic

  • Window Explorer

  • http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/members/cplaisant/

  • http://www3.sympatico.ca/blevis/thesis49prev.html


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Challenges

  • Matching tools with users, tasks and real problems

  • Improving user testing

  • Addressing universal usability


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Users, tasks and real problemsControlled experiment

  • Users: linguists with more or less knowledge of a specific domain

  • Task domain: linguistics, esp. syntax

  • Real problems:

    • Are users able to identify constituents, dominance relations?

    • Do users see that constituents are coordinated, are in comparable positions?

  • Research question: Which visualizations are suitable for representing “3D natural language phenomena”?

    • 2D tree visualizations

    • 3D tree visualizations

    • Pseudo 2D tree visualizations


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Constituent

  • In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.

  • A constituent is a string of words such that there is one node that dominates those words and no other words.

    • Sam climbed up the ladder. 

    • Sam picked up the ladder. 


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Coordination and movement tests

  • Applying the coordination test 

    • Sam climbed [up the ladder] and [out the window].

    • *Sam picked [up a ladder] and [out some new boots].

  • Applying the movement test

    • [Up the ladder] Sam climbed.

    • *[Up a ladder] Sam picked.


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Coordination

  • Coordination involves the syntactic linking of two or more elements of equal status:

    • [John] and [Mary]

    • [up] and [down]

    • David [sings] and [plays guitar]


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Coordination and conjunction reduction

  • John found the letter and Bill signed the letter.

  • John found the letter and Bill signed the letter.

  • I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue.

  • I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue.


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Right Node Raising

  • SYNTAX: operation of reduction on coordinated clauses whose rightmost constituents are identical.

  • EXAMPLE: Right Node Raising derives the structure in b from the underlying structure in a by adjoining one copy of the identical constituents (the book) to the right of the sentence, and deleting the identical originals (indicated by e).

    • a [[John saw the book] and [Bill bought the book]]

    • b [[John saw ei ] and [Bill bought ei ]] the booki


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The 3D phenomena in Dutch

  • Coordination

    • De directeur bevordert Jansen of de Boer of de Vries.

    • Zowel de zusjes Jansen als Joop en Klaas spijbelden.

  • Right Node Raising

    • Joop haat, Piet bewondert, en Klaas verafgoodt partijleider Bos.

    • Ik constateer dat Jansen een boek, Vos een CD en de Boer een plant koopt.

  • Non-constituent Right Node Raising

    • Joop wil voor, maar Piet na het ontbijt douchen.

    • Jansen heeft drie en de Boer heeft vier doelpunten gemaakt.


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The visualization types

  • 2D tree

  • 2D tree + meaningful color

  • 3D tree

  • 3D tree + meaningful color

  • Pseudo 3D: D-plane


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Syntactic analysismain clause


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Syntactic analysissubordinate clause


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Syntactic analysiscoordination

  • Voor nevenschikking maken we gebruik van een zogenaamde coördinatorgroep (CoP). In een haakjesstructuur:[CoP XP1 [Co' Co XP2]]

  • bv. Jan en Piet. Hierin is XP1 nevengeschikt aan XP2.(Voor de duidelijkheid: XP1 is Jan, Co is en, XP2 is Piet.)







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Visualization assignmentBeyond tree structures

  • What are other possible (non tree) visualizations for “3D natural language phenomena”?


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