How Does the Body Communicate Internally?
Download
1 / 45

How Does the Body Communicate InternallyThe Nervous System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


All parts of nervous system lying outside the central nervous system. ... Autonomic Nervous System - Sends messages to the internal organs and glands. ...

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

How Does the Body Communicate InternallyThe Nervous System

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

  • How Does the Body Communicate Internally?

    • The Nervous System

  • How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?

    • Three Layers of the Brain

    • Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

    • Cerebral Hemispheres

    • Methods of Examining Brain Activity


Slide2 l.jpg

The Nervous System


Slide3 l.jpg

Brain

Spinal

Cord

Central Nervous System

  • Brain and Spinal Cord


Slide4 l.jpg

Brain

Spinal

Cord

Nerves

Peripheral Nervous System

  • All parts of nervous system lying outside the central nervous system.


Slide5 l.jpg

  • The Peripheral Nervous System

  • Somatic (Skeletal) Nervous System -Sends voluntary messages to the body’s skeletal muscles.

  • Autonomic Nervous System - Sends messages to the internal organs and glands.

    • Sympathetic Nervous System (Arousing)

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System (Calming)


Slide6 l.jpg

Brain

Dilates pupil

Stimulates salivation

Salivary

glands

Relaxes bronchi

Spinal

cord

Lungs

Accelerates heartbeat

Heart

Inhibits activity

Stomach

Pancreas

Stimulates glucose

Liver

Adrenal

gland

Secretion of adrenaline,

nonadrenaline

Kidney

Relaxes bladder

Sympathetic

ganglia

Stimulates ejaculation

in male

Sympathetic

  • “ Fight or flight” response

  • Release adrenaline and noradrenaline

  • Increases heart rate and blood pressure

  • Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles

  • Inhibits digestive functions


Slide7 l.jpg

Brain

Contracts pupil

Stimulates salivation

Constricts bronchi

Spinal

cord

Slows heartbeat

Stimulates activity

Stimulates gallbladder

Gallbladder

Contracts bladder

Stimulates erection

of sex organs

Parasympathetic

  • “ Rest and digest ” system

  • Calms body to conserve and maintain energy

  • Lowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure


Slide9 l.jpg

The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System

Neurons: Cells specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body. Bundles of many neurons are called nerves.


Slide10 l.jpg

The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System

  • Types of Neurons:

    • Sensory Neurons: Carry messages from sense receptors toward the central nervous system.

    • Motor Neurons: Carry messages away from central nervous system toward the muscles and glands.

    • Interneurons: Relay messages from one set of neurons to another.


Slide12 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron


Slide13 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron

Dendrites: Branched fibers that extend outward from the main cell body and carry information into neuron.


Slide14 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron

Cell Body: The part of a cell (including neurons) containing the nucleus - which includes the chromosomes.


Slide15 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron

Axon: Conducts information from the cell body to the axon terminals in the form of an electric charge.


Slide16 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron

Myelin Sheath: A fatty insulation coating some types of neural axons, which speeds conduction of neural impulses.


Slide17 l.jpg

Structure of the Neuron

Axon Terminals: Bulb-like structures at the end of the axon, which contain neurotransmitters that carry the neuron’s message into the synapse..


Slide18 l.jpg

Dendrite

Axon

Cell

Body

Neuron Communication

Axon terminals of one neuron branch out near dendrites of another. A small gap - synapse - exists exists between the two.


Slide19 l.jpg

Sending

Neuron

Axon

Synapse

Terminal

Neuron Communication

Synaptic Transmission: relay of information across the synapse by means of chemical neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that relay information.


Slide20 l.jpg

Neurotransmitters

  • Acetylcoline -In body involved in muscle movement. In brain it is involved in memory.

  • Dopamine - Plays important roles in disorders such as schizophrenia.

  • Serotonin - Involved in sleep and arousal.

  • Endorphins - Play a role in experience of emotion, pain and pleasure.


Slide21 l.jpg

The Brain

  • Three Layers of the Brain

  • Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

  • Cerebral Hemispheres

  • Methods of Examining Brain Activity


Slide22 l.jpg

Three Layers of the Brain

  • Brain Stem and Cerebellum: Drives vital functions - heart rate, breathing, digestion and motor coordination.

  • Limbic System: Involved in emotion and memory.

  • Cerebrum: Enables reasoning, planning, creating and problem solving.


Slide23 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Brain Stem


Slide24 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Medulla: Controls breathing and heart rate.


Slide25 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Pons: Regulates brain activity during sleep and dreaming.


Slide26 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Midbrain: Regulates basic movement patterns - eating, drinking, etc.


Slide27 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Thalamus: “Relay station” of the brain.


Slide28 l.jpg

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Cerebellum: Responsible for coordinated movements

Cerebellum


Slide29 l.jpg

The Limbic System


Slide30 l.jpg

The Limbic System

Hippocampus: Involved in establishing long-term memories.


Slide31 l.jpg

The Limbic System

Amygdala: Involved in memory and emotion, particularly aggression.


Slide32 l.jpg

The Limbic System

Hypothalamus: Monitors blood to determine condition of body.


Slide33 l.jpg

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebrum

Cerebral Cortex: Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum. Carries on the major portion of our “higher” thinking, including thinking an perceiving.


Slide34 l.jpg

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobes: Involved in movement and thinking.


Slide35 l.jpg

The Cerebral Cortex - Frontal Lobes

Primary Motor Area: Sends messages that control the body’s voluntary muscles.


Slide36 l.jpg

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Parietal Lobes: Involved in touch sensation and in perceiving spatial relationships.


Slide37 l.jpg

The Cerebral Cortex - Parietal Lobes

Primary Somatosensory Area: Involved with sensations of touch.


Slide38 l.jpg

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Occipital Lobes: Involved in visual perception and processing.


Slide39 l.jpg

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Temporal Lobes: Involved in processing sounds including speech and possibly involved in long-term memory.


Slide40 l.jpg

Cerebral Hemispheres


Slide41 l.jpg

Corpus Callosum

Cerebral Hemispheres

Corpus Callosum: Connects the left and right hemispheres.


Slide42 l.jpg

Verbal

left

hemisphere

Nonverbal

right

hemisphere

The ‘Split Brain’ Studies

  • Surgery for epilepsy : cut the corpus callosum

  • Sperry (1968) & Gazzaniga (1970)


Slide43 l.jpg

Methods of Examining Brain Activity

  • EEG - electroencephalograph (ERP)

  • CT Scanning - computerized tomography

  • PET Scanning - positron emission tomography

  • MRI - magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)


Slide44 l.jpg

MRI


Slide45 l.jpg

fMRI


ad
  • Login