The fluke can also infect cattle, sheep, and llama. Some other states and Canadian report the fluke in moose, elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, bison, and yak. ...
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Deer Liver Fluke
The natural host is the deer, which is also a reservoir host
found in captive elk, but has not been observed in free elk.
The fluke can also infect cattle, sheep, and llama.
Some other states and Canadian report the fluke in moose, elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, bison, and yak.
It has also been reported in red deer, fallow deer, and sambar deer in Europe.
It takes about 25 days for eggs to hatch into the next stage, miracidia.
Miracidia enter the snail as its next host
In the snail, development proceeds to a sporoscyst form which can produce redia and daughter redia
these redia produce cercaria, the final intramolluscan form
Cercaria leave the redia while immature, and leave the snail after about four days
cercaria encyst on vegetation
these encysted forms are called metacercaria. They represent infective larvae, or young flukes, that are very resistant to the elements
These are ingested by deer (or other host)
the larvae penetrate the wall of the intestine, and migrate to the liver.
The flukes develop in about three months.
If all conditions are right, the cycle can be completed in five months.
It is also possible to diagnose flukes by microscopic examination of the feces for eggs of the parasite.
fasciolicide drugs have been developed which are effective against mature Flukes.
Triclabendazole in a medicated corn bait was given to white-tailed deer in a wildlife refuge in Texas
resulting in the population of liver flukes being significantly lower
(all information from http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/ Pictures from google and that website)