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Prison (Penitentiary) A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration ... Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they ...

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Corrections Institutions andThe Prison Experience


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Corrections Institutions

  • What is a corrections institution?

    • Prisons (usually state or federal)

    • Jails (local or county)


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Corrections Institutions

  • What is the purpose of corrections institutions?


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Corrections Institutions

  • What is the purpose of corrections institutions?

    • Incapacitation

    • Retribution

    • Deterrence

    • Rehabilitation


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Corrections Institutions

  • Prison (Penitentiary)

    • A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration of felony offenders for terms of one year or more.


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Corrections Institutions

  • Jail

    • A local correctional institution used to hold people awaiting trial or sentencing, as well as misdemeanor offenders sentenced to a term of less than one year.


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Corrections Institutions

  • US Origins

    • 1790 Pennsylvania

      • Penitentiary Houses

      • Solitary Cells, Isolation, No Work,

      • Intent: Do Penance, Meditate and Rehabilitate

      • Many suicides and breakdowns


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Corrections Institutions

  • US Origins

    • 1816 New York

      • Auburn System

      • Tier System (cells built vertically)

      • Congregate System (group work day, separate night)

      • Silence during work

      • Eliminated suicides and breakdowns

      • Rules Breaches: Punishment By Whipping


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Corrections Institutions

  • US Origins

    • Nineteenth Century

      • Contract System: Sale of inmate labor

      • Convict Lease System: Businesses leased inmate labor

        • Responsible for inmate supervision and control


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Corrections Institutions

  • US Origins

    • Twentieth Century

      • Better inmate treatment

      • End of corporal punishment

      • Created meaningful prison industries

      • Began educational programs


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era

    • Three Major Trends

    • 1960-1980 Prisoners Rights Movement

    • Violence In Corrections Institutions

    • Reevaluation of the Purpose for Incarceration


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

    1. 1960-1980 Prisoners Rights Movement

    • Courts abandoned “Hands Off Policy”

    • Inmate Gained Rights

      • Freedom of Religion and Speech

      • Medical Care

      • Procedural Due Process

      • Proper Living Conditions


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

    2. Violence in Corrections Institutions

    • Riots at Attica and New Mexico State Prison

    • Prison rapes and beatings too common

    • Control shifted from correctional staff to inmate gangs


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

    3. Reevaluate the Purpose of Incarceration

    • Traditional Rehabilitation Efforts Failed

    • “Medical Model” abandoned

    • Reintegration (furloughs, etc) diminished

    • Use prisons to:

      • Control, Incapacitate, Punish


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era – Effects

    • Corrections the largest agency in many states

    • Prisoners serving longer sentences

    • Two cents of every tax dollar goes to institutions

    • One tenth of that goes to community corrections


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Modern Era

    • Why has corrections taken the path that it has?

      • Politicians respond to public fears and sentiment

      • Lack of public knowledge of corrections costs

      • Lack of public knowledge of alternatives to prison

      • The argument that anything other than prison is “letting off” criminals without punishment


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Corrections Institutions

  • False Dichotomy

    • The argument that any criminal sentence other than prison is “letting criminals off” is a false dichotomy.

    • The argument is not either prison or “letting go”.

      • Prison and probation, or parole, can be combined.

      • P&P with IS is often regarded by offenders as more punitive than incarceration.


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Corrections Institutions

  • Inmate Profile

    • Young

    • Single

    • Male

    • Poorly Educated

    • Minority Group Member

    • Unemployed or Underemployed

    • Substance Abuse History (80% or more)

    • History of Physical or Mental Abuse


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Corrections Institutions

  • The Future

    • Budget Cutbacks: Closing Prisons

    • More inmates likely going to P&P

    • Rehabilitation: not likely to offer services


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Break

  • Read assignments.

  • Participate in class discussions.

  • Review notes weekly.


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The Prison Experience

  • Prison is not a fun place.

    • Cells lack privacy

    • Can be dangerous

    • Sometimes overcrowded (allowed 60 sq ft)

    • Most inmates in medium security institutions


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The Prison Experience

  • Prisons are brick and mortar institutions.

    • Budgets are limited leaving little extra for rehabilitation programs.


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The Prison Experience

  • Control and Security in Prisons.

    • Violence is commonplace

    • Gangs often rule

  • Virginia Solution

    • Strict control and supermax prisons

    • Reduced inmate assaults and escapes


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The Prison Experience

  • Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison?


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The Prison Experience

  • Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison?

    • Reality: Inmates leave prison with the same problems they had when they were confined.


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Adjusting

    • Hustling

    • Racial Conflict

    • Social Support

    • Coping


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Adjusting

      • Solitude or interest groups

      • Personal protection

      • Beat and rape or be beaten and raped


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Hustling

      • Income and satisfaction

      • Supply and demand

      • Power struggles for market control


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Racial Conflict

      • Racial and ethnic groups

      • National origin groups (Columbian, Jamaican, etc.)


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Social Support

      • Social support eases the pain

      • Acceptance of prison culture

        • Resentment: Authority figures

        • Transferance: Place blame on society

        • Anger: Why should the equally guilty go free?

        • Learn: Value of money and politics


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The Prison Experience

  • Realities of Prison Life

    • Coping

      • Isolation: Results in loneliness, vulnerability to attack

      • Visitors: Resentment and attack from jealous inmates

      • Gang Membership: Protection but deeper into crime


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The Prison Experience

  • Prisonization

    • Assimilation into the prison culture by accepting its language, sexual code, and norms of behavior

    • Inmates who become the most prisonized will be the least likely to reform on the outside.


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The Prison Experience

  • Inmate Social Code

    • Never betray another inmate

    • Settle grievances personally

    • Be Right: Keep your word

    • Be Tough: “Be a Man”

    • Be Sharp: Don’t sell out to the system


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The Prison Experience

  • Inmate World: Outside World

    • Thief Subculture

      • Professional Criminals: Stick to themselves

    • Convict Subculture

      • Try to Gain Power: Control others and use them

    • Conventional Subculture

      • Try to Remain Legitimate: Do not identify with the other two groups


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The Prison Experience

  • The Old Inmate Culture

    • Inmates who violated the social code were dealt with by peers.

    • Inmate leaders got their way from staff, and in return the administration was kept looking good.


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The Prison Experience

  • The New Inmate Culture

    • African American and Latino gangs are well organized.

    • They demand and receive power.

    • Loyalty is to the gang.


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The Prison Experience

  • Prison Rapes

    • Why do they occur?

      • Dominance

      • Power

      • Anger


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The Prison Experience

  • Theories of Prison Violence

    • Inmate Balance Theory

      • Violence results when officials try to take control of prisons and limit freedoms

    • Administrative Control Theory

      • Violence results when officials lack strong security and provide inadequate control


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The Prison Experience

  • Loss of Rights After Prison

    • Long Term Social Effects

    • Recall: Civil Disabilities

      • 7% of African American males are barred from voting

      • 2.1% of the general population is barred from voting


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Break

  • Read assignments.

  • Participate in class discussions.

  • Review notes weekly.


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