corrections institutions and the prison experience
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Prison (Penitentiary) A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration ... Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they ...

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corrections institutions
Corrections Institutions
  • What is a corrections institution?
    • Prisons (usually state or federal)
    • Jails (local or county)
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Corrections Institutions
  • What is the purpose of corrections institutions?
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Corrections Institutions
  • What is the purpose of corrections institutions?
    • Incapacitation
    • Retribution
    • Deterrence
    • Rehabilitation
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Corrections Institutions
  • Prison (Penitentiary)
    • A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration of felony offenders for terms of one year or more.
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Corrections Institutions
  • Jail
    • A local correctional institution used to hold people awaiting trial or sentencing, as well as misdemeanor offenders sentenced to a term of less than one year.
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Corrections Institutions
  • US Origins
    • 1790 Pennsylvania
      • Penitentiary Houses
      • Solitary Cells, Isolation, No Work,
      • Intent: Do Penance, Meditate and Rehabilitate
      • Many suicides and breakdowns
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Corrections Institutions
  • US Origins
    • 1816 New York
      • Auburn System
      • Tier System (cells built vertically)
      • Congregate System (group work day, separate night)
      • Silence during work
      • Eliminated suicides and breakdowns
      • Rules Breaches: Punishment By Whipping
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Corrections Institutions
  • US Origins
    • Nineteenth Century
      • Contract System: Sale of inmate labor
      • Convict Lease System: Businesses leased inmate labor
        • Responsible for inmate supervision and control
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Corrections Institutions
  • US Origins
    • Twentieth Century
      • Better inmate treatment
      • End of corporal punishment
      • Created meaningful prison industries
      • Began educational programs
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era
    • Three Major Trends
    • 1960-1980 Prisoners Rights Movement
    • Violence In Corrections Institutions
    • Reevaluation of the Purpose for Incarceration
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

1. 1960-1980 Prisoners Rights Movement

      • Courts abandoned “Hands Off Policy”
      • Inmate Gained Rights
        • Freedom of Religion and Speech
        • Medical Care
        • Procedural Due Process
        • Proper Living Conditions
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

2. Violence in Corrections Institutions

      • Riots at Attica and New Mexico State Prison
      • Prison rapes and beatings too common
      • Control shifted from correctional staff to inmate gangs
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era – Major Trends

3. Reevaluate the Purpose of Incarceration

      • Traditional Rehabilitation Efforts Failed
      • “Medical Model” abandoned
      • Reintegration (furloughs, etc) diminished
      • Use prisons to:
        • Control, Incapacitate, Punish
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era – Effects
    • Corrections the largest agency in many states
    • Prisoners serving longer sentences
    • Two cents of every tax dollar goes to institutions
    • One tenth of that goes to community corrections
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Modern Era
    • Why has corrections taken the path that it has?
      • Politicians respond to public fears and sentiment
      • Lack of public knowledge of corrections costs
      • Lack of public knowledge of alternatives to prison
      • The argument that anything other than prison is “letting off” criminals without punishment
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Corrections Institutions
  • False Dichotomy
    • The argument that any criminal sentence other than prison is “letting criminals off” is a false dichotomy.
    • The argument is not either prison or “letting go”.
      • Prison and probation, or parole, can be combined.
      • P&P with IS is often regarded by offenders as more punitive than incarceration.
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Corrections Institutions
  • Inmate Profile
      • Young
      • Single
      • Male
      • Poorly Educated
      • Minority Group Member
      • Unemployed or Underemployed
      • Substance Abuse History (80% or more)
      • History of Physical or Mental Abuse
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Corrections Institutions
  • The Future
    • Budget Cutbacks: Closing Prisons
    • More inmates likely going to P&P
    • Rehabilitation: not likely to offer services
break
Break
  • Read assignments.
  • Participate in class discussions.
  • Review notes weekly.
the prison experience
The Prison Experience
  • Prison is not a fun place.
    • Cells lack privacy
    • Can be dangerous
    • Sometimes overcrowded (allowed 60 sq ft)
    • Most inmates in medium security institutions
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The Prison Experience
  • Prisons are brick and mortar institutions.
    • Budgets are limited leaving little extra for rehabilitation programs.
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The Prison Experience
  • Control and Security in Prisons.
    • Violence is commonplace
    • Gangs often rule
  • Virginia Solution
    • Strict control and supermax prisons
    • Reduced inmate assaults and escapes
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The Prison Experience
  • Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison?
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The Prison Experience
  • Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison?
    • Reality: Inmates leave prison with the same problems they had when they were confined.
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Adjusting
    • Hustling
    • Racial Conflict
    • Social Support
    • Coping
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Adjusting
      • Solitude or interest groups
      • Personal protection
      • Beat and rape or be beaten and raped
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Hustling
      • Income and satisfaction
      • Supply and demand
      • Power struggles for market control
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Racial Conflict
      • Racial and ethnic groups
      • National origin groups (Columbian, Jamaican, etc.)
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Social Support
      • Social support eases the pain
      • Acceptance of prison culture
        • Resentment: Authority figures
        • Transferance: Place blame on society
        • Anger: Why should the equally guilty go free?
        • Learn: Value of money and politics
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The Prison Experience
  • Realities of Prison Life
    • Coping
      • Isolation: Results in loneliness, vulnerability to attack
      • Visitors: Resentment and attack from jealous inmates
      • Gang Membership: Protection but deeper into crime
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The Prison Experience
  • Prisonization
      • Assimilation into the prison culture by accepting its language, sexual code, and norms of behavior
      • Inmates who become the most prisonized will be the least likely to reform on the outside.
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The Prison Experience
  • Inmate Social Code
    • Never betray another inmate
    • Settle grievances personally
    • Be Right: Keep your word
    • Be Tough: “Be a Man”
    • Be Sharp: Don’t sell out to the system
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The Prison Experience
  • Inmate World: Outside World
    • Thief Subculture
      • Professional Criminals: Stick to themselves
    • Convict Subculture
      • Try to Gain Power: Control others and use them
    • Conventional Subculture
      • Try to Remain Legitimate: Do not identify with the other two groups
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The Prison Experience
  • The Old Inmate Culture
    • Inmates who violated the social code were dealt with by peers.
    • Inmate leaders got their way from staff, and in return the administration was kept looking good.
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The Prison Experience
  • The New Inmate Culture
    • African American and Latino gangs are well organized.
    • They demand and receive power.
    • Loyalty is to the gang.
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The Prison Experience
  • Prison Rapes
    • Why do they occur?
      • Dominance
      • Power
      • Anger
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The Prison Experience
  • Theories of Prison Violence
    • Inmate Balance Theory
      • Violence results when officials try to take control of prisons and limit freedoms
    • Administrative Control Theory
      • Violence results when officials lack strong security and provide inadequate control
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The Prison Experience
  • Loss of Rights After Prison
    • Long Term Social Effects
    • Recall: Civil Disabilities
      • 7% of African American males are barred from voting
      • 2.1% of the general population is barred from voting
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Break
  • Read assignments.
  • Participate in class discussions.
  • Review notes weekly.
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