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CGS – 1100Introduction to Computer Applications

Computer Concepts


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Computer System Component

Computer: A programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data.

The word “Computer” emerged during WWII, people who operated desk calculators were called: Computers.


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History of the Modern Computer

Human: Could add a two 10 digit number in 10 seconds, with

Calculator, in 4 Seconds.

Mark 1: Also called “Harvard Mark 1” Could add two 10-

digit numbers in about 0.3 seconds. 30 times faster than

Pencil and paper.

ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The

world's first electronic digital computer was developed by

Army Ordnance to compute World War II ballistic firing

Tables. Could add the same in 0.0002 seconds, 50,000 times

faster than a human, and 1,500 times faster than the Mark 1.


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General Vocabularyand Units

  • Bit: "Binary digIT" Computers happen to operate using the base-2 number system, also known as the binary number system ( 0, 1)

  • Byte: 8-bit collections (single, double precision)

  • Digital: Send – Receive 0’s and 1’s

  • Analog: AM - FM

  • Hertz: Unit of Frequency

  • Kilo-Hertz: 1000 Cycles

  • Mega-Hertz: 1 million Cycles

  • Giga-Hertz: 1 Billion Cycles


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Components of a Computer System

Computer

Hardware Software

Motherboard Operating System

Floppy Office 2003

Hard Drive Internet Explorer


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Components of a Computer System

Information

Processing

Cycle


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Components of a Computer System

Input

Process

Output

Storage


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Types of Computer


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Types of Computer


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Hardware Devices

Input Device

Storage

Device

Printer

Output Device

Peripheral

System Unit

Monitor

Output Device

Peripheral

Input Device


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Memory


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Memory

Random Access Memory

Read Only Memory

SRAM: Static RAM

EPROM: Erasable Programmable ROM

DRAM: Dynamic RAM

PROM: Programmable ROM

Memory Size in MB

256 MB

512 MB

1024 MB

1 MB

2 MB

4 MB

8 MB

16 MB

32 MB

64 MB

128 MB

Extra Points: What mathematical equation

describes the pattern?


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Monitors

  • Output device,

  • Soft-Copy Output

  • Resolution is given by the amount of “Pixels”

  • Two categories: CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes) and LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)


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Printers

  • Output Devices

  • Hard Copy Output

  • Resolution is given in “dsi”. Dots per Inch.

  • Two Categories: Laser (B&W, Color) uses Toner. Inkjet (Color) uses ink cartridges.


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Types of Software and Their Uses

Operating System Software (OS): Tell the

computer how to work and what to do.

Windows, Linux and Macintosh.

Driver: Software that tells a hardware

component how to work.

Application Software: Accomplish a task

Using a computer. Word, Excel, PowerPoint


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Networks and Configuration

  • Computer Network: Two or more computer connected in some way in order to share their resources.

  • Bus Network,

  • Star Network,

  • Ring Network.


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Network Vocabulary

  • Server/Host:

  • Client/Workstation:

  • Topology:


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Star Network

  • A star network is a local area network (LAN) in which all nodes (workstations or other devices) are directly connected to a common central computer. Every workstation is indirectly connected to every other through the central computer. In some star networks, the central computer can also operate as a workstation.


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Bus Network

  • A bus network is an arrangement in a local area network (LAN) in which each node (workstation or other device) is connected to a main cable or link called the bus.


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Ring Network

  • A ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which the nodes (workstations or other devices) are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs of nodes are directly connected. Other pairs of nodes are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes.


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Local Area Network

  • A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building). Usually, the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users. A local area network may serve as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or as many as thousands of users


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Wide Area Network

  • A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving a vast array of computers. WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.


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Test 1


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