Cda 3101 summer 2007 introduction to computer organization
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CDA 3101 Summer 2007Introduction to Computer Organization

Technology Trends

Digital Logic 101

17 May 2007

Mark Schmalz

http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~mssz/CompOrg/Top-Level.html


Review (Last Class)

  • Five components of the computer

  • Principle of Abstraction to build systems as layers

  • Pliable Data: a program determines what it is

  • Stored program concept: instructions are just data

  • Principle of Locality: memory hierarchy

  • Greater performance by exploiting parallelism

  • Compilation vs. interpretation

  • Principles/Pitfalls of Performance Measurement


Overview (Today’s Class)

  • Computer generations

  • Technology  applications synergism

  • Technology trends

    • Hardware

    • Software

  • Moore’s law

  • Basics of Digital Logic

    • Operations

    • Truth Tables


Computer Generations

  • Gen-0: Mechanical computers (BC to early 1940s)

  • Gen-1: Vacuum Tubes (1943-1959)

  • Gen-2: Transistors (1960-1968)

    • John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley

  • Gen-3: Integrated Circuits (1969-1977)

    • Jack Kilby (1958)

  • Gen-4: VLSI (1978-present)

  • Gen-5: Optical?

    Quantum?


Digital Computer Milestones


Technology Trends

  • Technology  application synergism (virtuous circle)

    • Intel’s nightmare: Fast CPUs, lack of application demands

    • Current application demands

      • E-commerce servers

      • Database servers

      • Engineering workstations

      • Ubiquitous mobile computing

  • Technologies

    • Compilers

    • Silicon

  • Silicon Valley or Iron Oxide Valley ??

ISA and computer organization


IC Manufacturing

Cost = f(area4)


Hardware Technology Trends

  • Processor

    • 2X in speed every 1.5 years 100X performance in last decade

  • Memory

    • DRAM capacity: 2x / 2 years; 64X size in last decade

    • Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year

  • Disk

    • capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years

    • Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year

    • 120X size in last decade

  • New units!Mega (106) Giga (109) Tera (1012)


Memory Capacity

  • Year Size(Mbit)

  • 19800.0625

  • 19830.25

  • 19861

  • 19894

  • 199216

  • 199664

  • 256

  • 2005 512

Size (bits)

1000000000

100000000

10000000

1000000

100000

10000

1000

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Year


Processor Capacity

Moore’s Law (1965): 2X transistors/Chip Every 1.5 years

All processors

100000000

Alpha 21264: 15 million

Pentium Pro: 5.5 million

PowerPC 620: 6.9 million

Alpha 21164: 9.3 million

Sparc Ultra: 5.2 million

10000000

Moore’s Law

Pentium

i80486

1000000

Transistors

i80386

i80286

100000

i8086

10000

i8080

i4004

1000

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Year


Processor Capacity

Moore’s Law (1965): 2X transistors/Chip Every 1.5 years

Intel processors


Processor Performance (1990s)

SPEC 92

1.54X/yr


Processor Clock Rate

Why does this real difference exist if the Intel and AMD processors do the same work?


A View of IC Manufacturing

Cost = f(area4)


Intel Processor Chip Layout

  • Pentium Pro

    • 306 mm2

    • 5.5 M transistors

  • Itanium (EPIC/IA-64)

    • ILP: 20 instructions

    • Compiler support

    • Massive hardware resources

      • 2 Floating Point Units

      • 4 Integer Units

      • 3 Branch Units

      • Internet Streaming SIMD

      • 128 FP registers

      • 128 integer registers


Selected Intel CPUs

Pentium III – 800 MHz, 4GB Memory

Pentium 4 – 2+GHz, 4GB Memory

Itanium – 4+ GHz, > 4GB Memory


Physical Limits on Moore’s Law 

  • Limits imposed by insulator thickness (2-3nm)

  • Quantum tunneling effects => crosstalk

  • How much smaller? (0.2micron / 2nm = 100x)

  • How much faster? Speed = k x Area

    • -- 3 to 4 orders of magnitude faster (103- 104)

    • -- 1.3GHz now => 5 THz to 10 THz

  • When?(13-17 years from now…)


Physical Limits on Moore’s Law

(Frank, 2002)


Will the Computer World End?

  • No, but things will get more interesting…

  • Opportunities

    • -- Make faster processors, algorithms using current technology

    • -- Increase bandwidth of buses that supply data to processors

    • -- Find more compact ways to encode data while it is being processed


Solutions (?) for Moore’s Law

  • Quantum Computing 

    • -- Different paradigm – all results at once

    • -- How to find “correct” result?

    • -- Implementation: Optics? Silicon? ???

  • Highly Experimental Technologies

    • -- DNA Computing (Pattern Matching)

    • -- Reversible Computing (Low Power)

    • -- Compressive Computation ( FAST )


Tech Summary

  • Incredible improvements in processor, memory and communication

  • Technology  application synergism

  • Technologies

    • Compiler

    • Silicon

  • Computer organization takes advantage of technology advances

  • Will Moore’s law last forever?  / 


New Topic – Digital Logic 101

  • Digital logic – its place in CDA3101

  • Boolean Operations

  • Transistors and Digital Logic

  • Basic gates – and, or, not

    • -- Transistor implementations

    • -- Truth tables


Digital Logic in CDA 3101

Application (Netscape)

Operating

Software

Compiler

System

(Windows 98)

CDA 3101

Assembler

Instruction Set Architecture

Datapath & Control

Memory

I/O System

Digital Logic

Hardware

Circuit Design

Transistors


Boolean Operations

1 if A is 0

0 if A is 1

  • 0 & 1: the only values for variables and functions B = {0,1} called Boolean numbers

  • The NOT function: f (A) =

  • Truth tables

    • Completely define a Boolean function

    • n variables => 2n entries in the truth table

    • Up to 16 Boolean functions of two variables

    • Shorthand: specify only entries with nonzero outputs


Transistors & Digital Logic

Gate Symbol

Truth Table

(functional behavior)

NOT gate (Inverter)


NAND Gate


NOR Gate


AND & OR Gates


Integrated Circuits


Conclusions

  • Technology development

  • Computer organization takes advantage of technology advances

  • Digital Logic & Boolean Numbers

  • Basic logic gates w/ Implementation

  • Concept of truth table

  • Next time:Boolean Algebra

    • Complex logic & circuits


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