Analyzing system processes use case diagram updated 2010
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... relationship a standard case linked to a mandatory use case. Standard use case can ... UC (use the verb. to figure direction arrow). Note: Visio calls this

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Asper School of Business

University of Manitoba

Systems Analysis & Design

Instructor: Bob Travica

Analyzing system processes:Use Case DiagramUpdated 2010


  • The use case concept

  • Business events and systems

  • Elements of use case diagram

  • Include and Extend relationships between use cases

  • Reading use case diagrams

  • Creating use case diagrams

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Figure 6-3

Use case concept

  • Use case is a model of system functionality.

  • Think of main functions a system performs for users – “cases” of using a system.

Use case

Use Case

Diagram of



for RMO

Use case diagram in system documentation

  • Use Case helps to model system requirements

  • Easy for users to understand

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Business Event concept

  • A stimulus that requires a system’s response

  • Delineated in time; stands on its own

Figure 5-2

Events affecting a Charge Account Processing System

that determine what system has to do – functions, use cases

Event types

  • External Events

    • Caused by external agent (human, system)

  • Temporal Events

    • Occur when system reaches a point in time; calendar time tracking in computer

  • State Events

    • Asynchronous events responding to a system trigger (e.g., if QuantityOnHand=<ReorderAmount, create purchasing order)

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Figure 5-10

Events Table



3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Elements of use case diagram:Actor

  • Actor is someone interacting with use case (system fucntion). Named by noun.

  • Similar to the concept of user, but

  • a user can play different roles;

  • (example: a prof. can be instructor and researcher – plays 2 roles with two systems).


  • Actor triggers use case.

  • Actor has responsibility toward the system (inputs), and Actor have expectations from the system (outputs).

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

= Use Case

Elements of use case diagram:Use Case

  • System function (process – automated or manual). Named by verb.

Do something

  • Each Actor must be linked to a use case,

    while some use cases may not be linked to actors.

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Connection between Actor and Use Case

Boundary of system

Include relationship between Use Cases (one UC must

call another; e.g., Login UC includes User Authentication UC)



Extend relationship between Use Cases (one UC calls

Another under certain condition; think of if-then decision points)

Elements of use case diagram:Other details

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Include relationship

  • Include relationship – a standard case linked to a mandatory use case.

  • Example: to Authorize Car Loan (standard use case),

  • a clerk must run Check Client’s Credit History (include use case).

  • The standard UC includesthe mandatory UC (use the verb

  • to figure direction arrow).

  • Standard use case can NOT execute without the include case  tight coupling .

  • Note: Visio calls this “uses” relationship.

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Reading use case diagramwith Include relationship

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

Extend relationship

  • Extend relationship – linking an optional use case

  • to a standard use case.

  • Example: Register Course (standard use case) may have

  • Register for Special Class (extend use case) – class for

  • non-standard students, in unusual time, with special

  • topics, requiring extra fees…).

  • The optional UC extends the standard UC

  • Standard use case can execute without the extend case

  •  loose coupling.

Reading extend relationship

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

How to create use case diagram

1. List main system functions (use cases) in a column:

  • think of business events demanding system’s response

  • users’ goals/needs to be accomplished via the system

  • Create, Read, Update, Delete (CRUD) data tasks

    2. Draw ovals around the function labels

    3. Draw system boundary

    4. Draw actors and connect them with use cases (if more intuitive, this can be done as step 2)

    5. Specify include and extend relationships between use cases

3510 Systems Analysis & Design * Bob Travica

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