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Processor. Radar Processor Replacement. 5. IDGA Sensors Nov 06 (5 ) ... of different technologies; leading in cooling requirements. For a particular technology, ...

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slide1

Army’s Digital Array Radars

October 11, 2007

U.S. Army . Program Executive Office, Intelligence, Electronic Warfare & Sensors

Dr. Rich Wittstruck

[email protected]

Unclassified

today s counterfire radar capabilities

50 km

Rocket

30 km

Cannon

Today’s Counterfire Radar Capabilities

24 km

Rocket

Mortar

Mortar

18 km

6.5 km

14.5 km

Cannon

AN/TPQ-48(V)2

AN/TPQ-36(8)

AN/TPQ-37(8)

  • SOF system derivative fielded on operational needs statement
  • Only mortars: 1-6.5km
  • 360° coverage
  • Range and accuracy improvements in V3
  • Mortars: 0.75-18km
  • Medium Cannon: 3-14.5km
  • Rockets: 8-24km
  • 90° Coverage
  • Improved Processor On-going
  • Medium Cannon: 3-30km
  • Rockets: 3-50km
  • 90o Coverage
  • RMI Initiative
  • Long Range software initiative in SWBII+ adds 120KM mode
giraffe
GIRAFFE

BACKGROUND

  • Air defense radar with an added Counterfire mode
  • Countefire performance acceptable for limited target sets
slide4

Radar Processor Replacement

  • 128 circuit cards (86 unique)
  • 20 cubic feet
  • 3 KW of power
  • Complex “wired” backplane
  • Non-programmable
  • No growth

TPQ-37

  • New modern architecture
  • 100% COTS technology
  • Non-proprietary
  • Open architecture
  • Supports future software requirements
  • Leverages MPQ-64 software
  • 3 VME cards
  • Lighter weight
  • 0.2 KW of power
  • Commonality with AN/TPQ-36(V)8 Radar Processor

Common

Processor

TPQ-36/37

Upgrade

slide5

Transmitter Upgrade

Transmitter/Cooler

eq 36

3Km

Mortar Cannon

15 Km

EQ - 36

Q37 Capabilities

Q36 Footprint

60Km

Rocket

  • 90º Range
  • Mortars –0.5 to 20 km
  • Artillery – 3 to 32 km
  • Rockets – 15 to 60 km

32Km

Cannon

Mortar

20Km

OR

  • Solid State Antenna
  • Remote Operations
  • Prognostics Maintenance
  • Crew size 4
  • Single C-130 lift
  • Single vehicle
  • Improved Clutter Mitigation
  • Warn
  • 360º Range (Mortars)
      • Light - 3 to 10 km Medium – 3 to 12 km Heavy – 3 to 15 km
general considerations
General Considerations
  • Use of spectrum
  • Size/Weight/Power
    • Q37+ performance in Q36 footprint (90 Degree)
    • Add 360 degree capability
  • “-ilities”, especially:
    • Mobility/Transportability
    • Survivability
    • Reliability/maintainability
endstate
Endstate

Army LCMR

SOF LCMR

Long Range Counterfire Radar

  • 90° Coverage
  • 60Km for Artillery
  • 300Km Max Range for Missiles
  • Single Sortie C-130

E Q36 Increment I/II

MMR

ATNAVICS

  • Counterfire Target Acquisition
  • Air Defense
  • Air Defense Fire Control
  • Air Traffic Control

Sentinel

assumptions used in technology assessment
Assumptions used in Technology Assessment

Objective: To establish a working template to assess various device technologies for a power transmitter used in different system requirements.

  • Solid-state phased array system
  • Output power per element: 25W
  • Mode of operation: CW and Pulsed
  • Final performance can be scaled
  • Estimation of baseplate temperature needed to maintain PA MMIC(s) of different technologies; leading in cooling requirements
  • For a particular technology, overall system DC conversion efficiency and I2R distribution loss also to be considered to assess its advantage; trade-off should be noted
slide13

The Philosophy of Radar Design

“There has been no significant change in Doppler Radar front-end architecture/concept since World-War II. The only difference in modern radar is the digital electronics for signal processing.”

Skolnik

Conventional Radar:

  • Super heterodyne receiver architecture/concept
    • - Theory was developed for CW RF
    • - Doppler or information detection achieved by frequency domain filtering
  • But, most modern Radar are pulsed Radar
    • Use multiple pulses
    • Increase transmission power
    • Require very high SFDR
    • Require super oscillators…
  • Limited Performance:
    • Doppler-range ambiguity

RF in

LNA

IF

A/D

LF

LO

slide14

RF-Photonic Interferoceiver For MicroDoppler Radar

DARPA Funded Seeding Efforts at Army Research Lab:

  • Investigate the MicroDoppler signature
    • Theoretical modeling and simulation
      • MicroDoppler detection
      • Noise analysis
  • Study the experimental feasibility of interferoceiver
    • Fiber recirculation loop experiment
    • Technology survey
slide15

RF - Photonic Correlation Receiver for Channelizer Concept

True time domain self correlation produced by the fiber recirculation loop

  • Astrophysicists are able to retrieve their signal 36dB below noise level! (Joe Taylor)

t1

Optical Amplifier

Self-correlation data in

fiber

EDFA

∆l

RFin

L1

λ

Interference combiner

+sq law detector

Coupler

filter

A/D

Laser

Modulator

1x2

φ

L2

t2

Fourier Transform

system design

Trange

System Design:

Photonic Pulse Doppler Radar / Experimental

Pulse Doppler Radar:

t

Tpulse

Receive antenna

RF in

Optical Amplifier/absorber

Doppler out

λ1

Laser

Modulator

WDM

WDM

λ2

φ

Coupler

Laser

Modulator

RFLO

slide17

Let’s Transition This Technology

  • So that the future RF Radar systems can:
  • Use single transmit / receive pulse
  • Don’t worry about SFDR
  • Don’t worry aboutspeed and bandwidth of A/D
  • Ultra wide band and frequency agile
  • Channelizing with extreme large number of channels (large bandwidth, high resolution)
  • 1 Hz resolution micro Doppler detection
  • Precise range and Doppler for long distance high speed target
  • Detect small signal from the noise floor
slide19

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Reflected

SQUARE

LAW RF

RECEIVER

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Original

RF-Photonic Interferoceiver

One pulse can determine Doppler Beating

Both loops have the same length L

n is the number of circulations

Interfering Amplitudes

Intensity Variation

slide20

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop L1

Received RF

Transfer

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop L2

ω

t

RF-Photonic Correlation Receiver For Channelizer

Self-Correlation in time domain

Time domain correlation spectrum analyzer:

But A/D sampling a CW signal.

Again, not a true time domain correlation!

t

true correlation receivers
True Correlation Receivers

True Time Domain Correlation

Received RF

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Transfer

Reference RF

t

ω

Self-Correlator

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop: L1

Received RF

Transfer

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop: L2

t

ω

slide22

True Correlation Receiver

  • The Power of Time Domain True Correlation Receiver
    • Astrophysicists are able to be able to retrieve their signal 36dB below noise level! (Joe Taylor)

Cannot get info

with short pulse

For CW RF:

Time domain

Received signal

f(ωt)

t

Reference (LO)

Doppler

f(ωot)

Frequency domain

We need to do correlation for pulse RF!

ωo

ω

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