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Tuberculosis. Evolution of Transmission and Treatment. Key Points. Symptoms Interesting Statistics History of Transmission History of Treatment Current Transmission Current Treatment Concerns Conclusions. Symptoms. TB can be related to cough, fever, and weight loss.

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Tuberculosis l.jpg

Tuberculosis

Evolution of Transmission and Treatment


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Key Points

Symptoms

Interesting Statistics

History of Transmission

History of Treatment

Current Transmission

Current Treatment

Concerns

Conclusions


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Symptoms

TB can be related to cough, fever, and weight loss.

If untreated, fatal in over 50% of cases.


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Statistics

  • Untreated patients infect 10-12 people on a yearly basis.

  • In 1990, 7.5 million people developed TB, and 2.5 million died.

  • 1/3 of the population of the world has TB.

  • TB is the leading cause of death from a single infection in adults.


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Statistics Cont.

  • 1 in 10 to 1 in 20 of the people infected with TB actually get sick.

  • TB has been around since prehistoric times

    • Found in ancient mummies


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History of Transmission

  • Hippocrates

    • TB caused by growths in lungs

  • Having TB was attractive during the 19th century.

    • Pallor, flushed cheeks, emaciation

  • Crowded and unclean areas.

  • Caused by airborne bacteria

    • Discovered in mid 20th century


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History of Treatment

  • Patients sometimes mistreated, since the focus was on one area.

    • Autopsy studies concluded that TB could spread to many areas within the body.

  • Originally thought to infect the lungs, but can spread to other parts of the body.

    • Spine, abdominal cavity, and joints


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History of Treatment Cont.

  • X-rays used in the 1920’s to scan the lungs for TB.

    • Standard treatment for active TB patients

  • Before drugs were available, people went to sanitariums/sanatoriums for TB treatment.

    • High altitude, fresh air, rest, and food.

    • Less advanced TB vs. more advanced TB


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History of Treatment Cont.

  • First TB spa founded in the U.S. by Edward Livingston Trudeau in 1884.

    • Saranac Lake in New York’s Adirondak Mtns.

    • Trudeau had TB himself

  • India

    • Sadness, fasting, pregnancy, and exhaustion thought to be causes of TB

  • Further study breakthrough by Robert Koch.

    • Isolated TB bacteria in 1882


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History of Treatment Cont.

  • Pneumothorax treatment.

    • Lung collapsed in order to let it rest

  • Villemin, 1865, established that the disease was infectious.

    • Rabbit experiment

  • Trouble with medication.

    • Workers hired to be sure medication was taken


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Current Transmission

  • Rampant in underdeveloped areas.

    • Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    • Crowded and unsanitary conditions

  • Transmission has decreased significantly, but could possibly increase.

    • Increasing world population


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Current Transmission Cont.

  • Airborne Transmission

    • Hospitals

    • Drying droplets

  • HIV victims can have TB transmitted to them very easily.

    • Weakened immune systems due to HIV


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Current Treatments

  • U.S. Public Health Service

    • Grants

    • Voluntary health groups

    • Reporting systems

  • Vaccinations

  • Chemotherapy

  • Surgeons resorting to old methods of treating TB.

    • Removal of parts to treat cases that do not respond to drugs.


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Concerns

  • TB becoming harder and harder to treat.

  • Drug-resistant strains of TB are developing over time.

  • Risk of TB in people with weakened immune systems, such as AIDS patients.

  • Absence of national TB programs in undeveloped countries.


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Concerns Cont.

  • Epidemic could possibly worsen

    • TB incident rates are expected to rise in HIV common areas.

    • Famine, war, and natural disasters create populations of malnourished people, along with terrible living conditions

  • Serious commitment must be made by all to strengthen control programs


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Unanswered questions

  • More ways in which TB is currently transferred?

  • Are there any TB spas used in the world today?


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Conclusion

  • TB has been in existence since ancient times

  • Different treatments were used long ago.

    • Some successful, some not

  • TB is still a great concern to this day.

  • Transmission a great concern.

  • Current treatments available that are sufficient, but for how long?

  • Countries worldwide need to take part in the prevention of future TB outbreaks


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