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The Progressives. Important Ideas. 1 st national reform movement Comes from the era of the “bosses” Saw government as a protector, not an oppressor Spawned an activist state Sought to regulate the economy Wanted to manage society. Roots of Progressive Movement.

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important ideas
Important Ideas
  • 1st national reform movement
  • Comes from the era of the “bosses”
  • Saw government as a protector, not an oppressor
  • Spawned an activist state
  • Sought to regulate the economy
  • Wanted to manage society
roots of progressive movement
Roots of Progressive Movement
  • Came from the Depression of 1893
    • Families lost their homes
    • Mass unemployment
    • Huge gap between rich and poor
    • New immigration
    • Labor problems of a new industrial society
      • Hundreds of strikes
      • Violence
    • Paternalistic feeling by Middle Class
goals
Goals
  • Efficient government
  • Honest politics
  • Regulation of business
  • Orderly economy
  • Social justice
    • Welfare
        • Children
        • Women
        • workers
    • Purify
        • Alcohol
        • Drugs
        • Prostitution
        • slums
the progressive movement
The Progressive Movement. . .
  • . . used the organization, management, and scientific advancements of industry.
  • . .signified the evolving landscape of shifting values in the emerging industrial cities of the nation.
  • . .involved mostly middle-class residents of the cities who took civic responsibility seriously (Social Gospel idea)
muckrakers
Muckrakers
  • Upton Sinclair The Jungle
  • Jane Addams The Story of Hull House
  • Ida Tarbell History of Standard Oil Company
  • Frank Norris The Octopus and McTeague
  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities and Tweed Days in St. Louis
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives
  • Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie, The Financier, and The Titan
  • “Ashcan” school
    • Photographer Alfred Stieglitz
    • Painters John Sloan and George Bellows
  • Magazines
    • McClure’s
    • Collier’s
    • Cosmopolitan
progressive reformers
Progressive Reformers
  • John Dewey—1896 modern education
  • John B. Watson—behaviorism
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. 1902
    • Supreme Court interpretation according to changing society
  • Louis Brandeis 1908
    • Muller v Oregon
    • “Brandeis Brief” 102 pages of damages caused by working long hours
slide8
4 Cs
  • Control of corporation
  • Conservation of resources
  • Citizen protection
  • Changing the government
control of corporation
Control of Corporation
  • TR’s “Square Deal” for labor
    • Mediate coal miner’s strike in 1902
  • Trust Busters
    • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890
      • Ineffective until TR (Northern Securities, Standard Oil, and 40 others)
    • Elkins Act 1903 and Hepburn Act 1906
      • Gave ICC power to enforce regulation
    • William Howard Taft
      • Suits against over 66 companies
      • Mann-Elkins Act 1910 –ICC includes telephone, telegraph
    • Woodrow Wilson New Freedom
      • Clayton Anti-trust Act 1914
      • Federal Trade Commission 1914
      • Federal Reserve Act 1914 (banking)
      • Federal Farm Loan Act 1916
      • Child Labor Act 1916
conservation of resources
Conservation of Resources
  • TR
    • Used Forest Reserve Act of 1891 to set aside 150 m. acres as national reserve
    • Newlands Act 1902—public money for irrigation projects
    • Establishes the National Conservation Commission (Gifford Pinchot) in 1908
    • 1906 Antiquities Act used to establish national parks like Yellowstone
citizen protection
Citizen Protection
  • Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
  • Meat Inspection Act 1906
  • 1908 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People formed by members of the Niagra Movement under leadership of W. E. B. DuBois
  • Settlement houses like Hull House started by Jane Addams and Frances Kelley
  • Temperance movement –Anti-Saloon League (Carrie Nation)
    • 18th Amendment--prohibition
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) formed in 1900 by Carrie Chapman Catt
    • 19th Amendment (1920) gives women the right to vote
  • Chicago “Vice” Squad
    • Crack down on prostitution
    • Mann Act—cannot transport women across state lines for illegal purposes
changing government
Changing Government
  • 16th Amendment—income tax
  • City commissions and managers
  • Secret ballot (Australian)
  • Direct primaries (promoted by Gov. Robert LaFollette to eliminate “bosses”)
  • 17th Amendment—Direct election of Senators
  • Initiative—voters suggest a bill to legislature
  • Referendum—voters actually propose law
  • Recall—voters remove corrupt politican
  • 20th Amendment—new dates for officials to take office—eliminates “lame duck” practices
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