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Revolutions. Mexico 1810 & 1910. Gauchupine. Spanish v. Indians. Criollo. Spain’s Economic Policy Consolidation of Funds 44 million peso’s in loans called in 10,000 hacienda owners (Criollo) devastated 75% decline in silver mine production. Napolean. 1808 French Control Spain.

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Revolutions

Mexico 1810 & 1910


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Gauchupine

Spanish v. Indians

Criollo


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Spain’s Economic Policy

Consolidation of Funds

44 million peso’s in loans called in

10,000 hacienda owners (Criollo) devastated

75% decline in silver mine production

Napolean


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1808 French Control Spain

  • Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain

  • Gauchupine reject Joe and form independent government

  • Criollo form counter government

  • Rural Unrest

  • Bad harvest, high corn prices, mine closures, famine

  • Indians, Mestizos and others begin to form revolt

3


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Criollo b. 1753, liberal priest

Background

Sympathies and Economic Development Plan

Enlightenment Philosophy

Ideology and Colonialism

Spanish Inquisition

MIGUEL HIDALGO


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Revolutionary Platform

  • Gauchupines must leave Mexico or die

  • All Taxes abolished

  • Virgen de Guadalupe patron saint

6

MEXREV


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Women in the Revolution

  • Leona Vicario

  • b. 1782

  • Criollo

  • adopted by Gauchupine family

  • Andreas Quintana Roo

  • 1813 Belens Womens Shelter

  • Trail and execution day


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Augustin de Iturbide

  • b. 1783, Criollo

  • Military campaigns, discrimination

  • deal with Vincente Guerro 1820

  • Plan of Iguala

  • Independence

  • slavery abolished

  • criollo v. gauchupine distinction ended


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End of the Revolution

  • Sept. 27, 1821 Mexico City Falls

  • May 18, 1822 Iturbide, Emperor

  • Criollo’s dominate until 1910

  • Rise of Military Dictators

  • 1833-1855 36 presidents liberal/conservative

  • Mission secularization

  • Instability on Mexican frontier & Neocolonialism


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Neocolonialism

  • the economic and political policies by which a great power indirectly maintains or extends its influence over other areas or people

  • Similar to Imperialism


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Mexican Revolution 1910

“ I would rather die on my feet than live on my knees”

-Emiliano Zapata


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Porfirio Diaz, president 1876-1910

Modernization Program

Jose Ives Linamantour, Sec. of Treasury

Economic strategy to sell natural resources and agricultural lands to foreign investors and hacienda owners.

Ramon Corral, governor of Sonora

Seized Yaqui land then forced them into slavery in the Yucatan as a bonus to foreign investors.


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Economic Policies

  • 1910 75% of investment capital in Mexico foreign owned

  • 1883-1895 foreign ownership of 70 million aces

  • 1905-1910 peso lost 50% of purchasing power

  • 834 families or corporations vs. 7 million peasants “Hacienda System”

  • 1895 20% of Mexicans owned land, by 1910 number down to 2%


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The Revolution Begins

  • Flores-Magon Brothers

  • 1906 Cananea Copper Strike & American Intervention

  • 1908 Francisco Madero

    “Presidential Succession”

  • 1910 Election

  • First battles in Chihuahua, Pasqual Orozco & Doroteo Arango (Villa)

  • Revolutionary army lived off the land


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End of the Revolution?

  • Battles in the South: Zapata

  • May 25, 1911 Diaz and Linamentour resign flee to Paris

  • De La Barra interim President

  • Huerta dispatched to stop Zapata

  • 11/11/1911 Madero Pres.

  • Establishes “commissions”

  • Criticisms


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Zapata’s Army

  • Plan de Ayala: Land reform

  • Feminist agenda: Valentina

  • Zapata continued to enjoy important victories over Mexico’s federal army: captured 500 men, 330 rifles and 310 horses

    Federal “Burnt Earth” Policy


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The 1917 Constitution

  • Church power, public property

  • Minimum wage, no child labor, union rights

  • Presidents limited to 1 six year term

  • Indian land returned

  • Foreigners prohibited from landownership

  • All natural resources nationalized


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End of the Revolution

  • November 1920 elected

  • 90% of agriculture destroyed

  • 2 million civilian casualties

  • 1 in 8 migrate north into the Unites States

  • Continued Neocolonialism


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Since the 1960s

  • 1965 Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program

  • Maquilladoras

  • Low wages, high productivity, infrastructure, proximity to US markets and pro-government unions

  • Many electronics and textile plants


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Neoliberal Policies

  • Western powers, Japan, World Bank, International Monetary Fund

  • Mexico early testing ground for policies; Free Trade Zones, Currency Devaluation,

    Deregulation, Privatization, Cuts in wages, Social program, Labor Rights Violations,

    Militarization, Neoconservative Ideology


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IMF/World Bank Program

  • 1982 fall in oil and high interest cause default on loans

  • 3.9 Billion package from IMF/WB

  • Social Services Cut, Government enterprises shifted to private sector, Industry deregulated, open up to foreign trade /investmentPactos” to keep wages low

  • Lost Decade for wage earners real wages decline by 75%

  • 1981-1990 workers share of national income fell from 49-29%

  • Government investment in education, R&D and infrastructure reduced


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IMF/World Bank Program

  • Since 1983 Mexico sold 1000 public (government) enterprises to private sector

  • Telmex (phone company) bought by Southwest Bell and France Telecom rates jumped from 16-115 peso per minute

  • Corn Farmers protected by tariffs and government subsidies prior to program

  • US Corn (subsidized) floods market causing 45% decrease in prices corn farmers receive. Farmers lose land moving to urban ghettos


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IMF/WB Program

  • 1995 7.75 Billion IMF Loan and 18 billion US Treasury Loan

  • Transportation, Banking, Railway and Petrochemical industries privatized

  • Peso devaluation/Rise in interest rates implemented to lure foreign investors

  • 12,000 Mexican Businesses collapse

  • Unemployment rate doubles


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IMF/WB Program

  • NAFTA 1994 Trade Liberalization

  • 100% Foreign Ownership of Mex Co’s

  • Modified article 23 of Mex. Const. allowing the breakup and selling of communal lands to foreign investors

  • 1982 57 b 1993 80b 1997 99b


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Impact on Mexico

  • 1982-1988 60% drop in wages

  • 1986 62% Sub-minimum wage

  • 1994 38% live in poverty

  • 2/5 no water, 1/3 no electricity

  • 1976, 1982, 1994 IMF push for devaluation of peso causing many to take a second job to buy basic necessities


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1994 North American Free Trade Agreement

  • In 18 months trade deficit up 4 billion

  • 80,000 jobs lost

  • Workers wages declined 40-50%

  • Cost of living up 80%, wages only 30%

  • Inflation up 51%, 2.3 million lost jobs

  • Peso devaluation


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Maquilladoras

  • 1985 they become the largest source of foreign exchange

  • 2000 plants

  • 29 Billion in exports

  • 70% of workforce is female

  • Lee, Guess, GAP, Polo, Express, Arizona, Cherokee, Levis

  • $30 for a 72 hour work week


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