Vehicle to grid energy systems the potential to influence the energy mix
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“Vehicle-to-Grid” Energy Systems The potential to influence the energy mix. Filipe Moura – [email protected] Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal Supervision by Hal Turton - [email protected]

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Vehicle to grid energy systems the potential to influence the energy mix l.jpg
“Vehicle-to-Grid” Energy SystemsThe potential to influence the energy mix

Filipe Moura – [email protected]

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture

Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Supervision by

Hal Turton - [email protected]

Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies

IIASA, Laxemburg, Austria


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • The concept

    • The ‘Vehicle-to-grid’ (V2G) concept

    • The logic behind the V2G power generation

  • Objectives of the present research

  • Preliminary Results

    • Costs and revenues of V2G power generation

    • The same for Gas Turbine power plants

  • Final remarks and what’s left to do…



Conventional view for using electric drive vehicles edvs l.jpg

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

Power Grid

Petroleum

Gasoline

Fossil

Biomass

Electrolysis Etc.

H2

Conventional view for using Electric-Drive Vehicles (EDVs)

Battery

Hybrid

Fuel Cell

Source: http://www.udel.edu/


Basic v2g concept l.jpg

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

Power Grid

Petroleum

Gasoline

Fossil

Biomass

Electrolysis Etc.

H2

Basic V2G concept

Battery

Hybrid

Fuel Cell

Source: http://www.udel.edu/


Full v2g concept l.jpg

GRID OPERATOR

Full V2G Concept

Source: Kemtpon et al, 2001


The logic behind the v2g concept l.jpg
The logic behind the V2G concept

  • Vehicles are parked 94-97% of their lifetime

  • Range of an EDV: 150 km + Daily travel: 32km

    • Power left to provide to the electricity grid

  • Total power capacity of the global automobile fleet is more than 4 times bigger than the installed power generation (power plants)

    • Significant quantity of power capacity (and stored energy) that could be used while vehicles are parked



Research questions at iiasa ecs l.jpg
Research questions at IIASA-ECS

  • Favourable conditions for V2G systems to be successful in the electric system

  • Potential of V2G systems to influence the energy mix in the long-term

  • Potential of V2G to promote the deployment of EDVs for the longer term


Power markets for v2g l.jpg
Power Markets for V2G

  • Ancillary services

    • Stability (regulation of the frequency and voltage)

    • Reliability (spinning reserves in case power failures) of the electric supply

  • Peak power

    • Times of predictable highest demand (e.g., hot summer afternoon)


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Main assumptions for preliminary results…

  • We adopted the selection of EDVs by Kempton et al (2005):

    • battery EV (Toyota RAV4 EV SUV)

    • gasoline hybrid EV (DaimlerChrysler Sprinter - Plug-in Hybrid)

    • fuel cell EV (P2000 Prodigy)

  • Used the technical characteristics of EV described in their publications (cross-checked with other authors)

  • Estimations were performed for the California Power Market.



Net revenues l.jpg
Net Revenues

Contracted Capacity + Energy Dispatched

Equipment Degradation + Primary Energy + Wiring-Up of Building and Cars

6000

Total Costs

5000

Gross Revenues

4000

Net Revenues

3000

2000

[$/vehicle/year]

1000

0

-1000

-2000

-3000

Batteries

Hybrid

Fuel cell

Batteries

Hybrid

Fuel cell

Batteries

Hybrid

Fuel cell

Regulation Up&Down

Spinning Reserves

Peak Power

Positive net revenues

Source: based on Kempton and Tomic, 2005


Cost competitiveness between v2g power generation and gas turbine power plants gtpp l.jpg

Electricity Services

Mobility Services

BEV

BEV

BEV

Gas Turb.

Gas Turb.

Gasoline car

Annualiyed capital costs of vehicles

Cost of producing one unit of energy

Energy Consumption

Cost of batterywear due to V2G power

Annualiyed capital costs of equipment

Non-fuel O&M costs of vehicles

Costs of producing power from GT

Ann. Cap. Cost of GT power plants

Cost competitiveness between V2G power generation and Gas Turbine Power Plants (GTPP)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

[$ / year]

[$ / year]

PRELIMINARY RESULTS



Final remarks16 l.jpg
Final remarks

  • V2G introduces the dual use of vehicles for transportation and power generation

    … linking the electric power system and vehicle fleets

    …bringing the transportation and electricity supply services together

  • V2G has a potential high market value for regulation services and spinning reserves, from the consumer perspective

  • However, preliminary results suggest that V2G power can be less attractive for the short medium term if we compare cost competitiveness with gas turbine power plants.




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“The Connected Car”

Reference papers

  • Kempton, W., Tomic, J. (2005) Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: calculating capacity and net revenues, Energy Policy, vol.144,pp.268-279

  • Kempton, W., Tomic, J. (2005) Vehicle-to-grid implementation: from stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy, Energy Policy, vol.144,pp.280-294

Source: AC Propulsion, 2005


Which vehicles and which power markets l.jpg
Which vehicles and which power markets?

Source: based on Kempton and Tomic, 2005


Structure of costs of providing v2g power l.jpg

Costs of providing kWh

Costs of Equipment Wear

Annualized Capital Cost

Structure of Costs of providing V2G power

Power Markets

Source: based on Kempton and Tomic, 2005


Revenues l.jpg

Rev. from providing kWh

Rev. from contracted Capacity

Revenues

[$ / vehicle / year]

Power Markets

Source: based on Kempton and Tomic, 2005


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Peak Demand

Peak-day Residential Building End-use Load

Demand (GW)

(California 1999 Summer)

Time of the day

Source: Energy Policy vol 31, no. 9, pp. 849-864, July 2003


Electric drive vehicles edvs l.jpg
Electric-Drive Vehicles (EDVs)

  • Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

    • Use on on-board electricity

    • Recharged from electrical grid

    • Example of usable stored energy: 21,92 kWh

  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

    • Electric drive system complement combustion engine, w/ parallel or series drive train

    • Conventional or plug-in

    • Example of usable stored energy: 14,4 kWh

  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

    • Fuel cell generates electricity from hydrogen to power an electric motor drive system

    • Hydrogen generated off-board

    • Example of usable stored energy: 51,26 kWh


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