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ANCIENT GREECE. Geography of Greece. Archaic Greece: 1650 BCE - 700 BCE. Bronze Age Greece. Crete: Minoan Civilization (Palace at Knossos ). Knossos : Minoan Civilization. Minoan Civilization. No fortified walls A bureaucracy led by a king Written form of communication.

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ANCIENT GREECE

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ANCIENT

GREECE


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Geography of Greece


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Archaic

Greece:

1650 BCE - 700 BCE


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Bronze Age Greece


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Crete: Minoan Civilization(Palace at Knossos)


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Knossos: Minoan Civilization


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Minoan Civilization

  • No fortified walls

  • A bureaucracy led by a king

  • Written form of communication


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Mycenaean Civilization


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Mycenaeans

  • Fortified walls

  • Warriors

  • Murals of war scenes


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Homer: The “Heroic Age”


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Age of Homer

  • Oral poetry

  • Singing tales

  • Sharp class system


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Courage - Arete

Protection of family and possessions

Honor

Integrity

“Always be the best and distinguished above others.”

Homeric values


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"Hellenic"

(Classical)

Greece:

700 BCE - 324 BCE


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ATHENS: Yesterday & Today


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Piraeus: Athens’ Port City


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Early Athenian Lawgivers

Draco

  • “draconian”

    Cleisthenes

  • created the first democracy


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Persian Wars: 499 BCE – 480 BCE


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Through 5th century, Athens and Sparta were both concerned with keeping independent of foreign threat – Persia

First Persian War

Athenian victory

Persian emperor Darius sent army to Greece

They were defeated at Marathon in 490 BCE

Victory for the Athenians (Nike!)

Persian Wars


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Golden “Age of Pericles”:460 BCE – 429 BCE


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Great Athenian Philosophers

Socrates

  • Know thyself!

  • question everything

    Plato

  • The Academy

  • The Republic philosopher-king


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Philosophers

  • Meaning of life

  • Purpose of government

  • Define human nature


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Socrates

  • Well known philosopher in Athens

    • Then Pericles dies

    • A plague hits Athens

      Socrates is arrested for corrupting the minds of Greek youth


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Great Athenian Philosophers

Aristotle

  • “Golden Mean” [everything inmoderation].

  • Logic

  • Scientific method


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Athens: Arts & Sciences

DRAMA:

  • Aeschylus

  • Sophocles

  • Euripides

    THE SCIENCES:

  • Pythagoras – Pythagorean theorem

  • Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”

    • Hippocratic oath


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Phidias’ Acropolis


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The Acropolis Today


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The Parthenon


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The Agora


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Classical Greek “Ideal”


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Olympia


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Olympia: Temple to Hera


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Ancient Olympics:Athletes & Trainers


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The 2004 Olympics


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Other Religious Festivals

  • Delphi

  • Corinth


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SPARTA


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SPARTA

Helots Messenians enslaved by the Spartans.


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Peloponnesian Wars


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Peloponnesian War431-404 BCE

  • No harmony among Greeks after Persian Wars

    • Leaves them vulnerable


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Macedonia Under Philip II


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Final Act in Classical Greece

Philip of Macedonia turned it into effective, aggressive state

  • Took over most of mainland

    From now on, Greece would almost always be under foreign rule


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"Hellenistic"

Greece:

324 BCE - 100 BCE


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Alexander the Great


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Alexander the Great’s Empire


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Alexander the Great in Persia


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The Hellenization of Asia


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Pergamum: Hellenistic City


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Economy of Hellenistic World


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Hellenistic Philosophers

Epicurians  Epicurus

  • avoid pain & seek pleasure.

  • all excess leads to pain!

  • politics should be avoided.


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Hellenistic Philosophers

  • Stoics  Zeno

    • get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but toperform virtuous acts for the good of all.

    • true happiness is found ingreat achievements


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Arts & Sciences

  • Scientists / Mathematicians:

    • Aristarchus  heliocentric theory.

    • Euclid  geometry

    • Archimedes  pulley

  • Hellenistic Art:

    • More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art.

    • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!


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Breakup of Alexander’s Empire


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