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Multimedia Games Development COM429. Week 8 Evolution and Genres. Lecture overview. Game beginnings Rise of home consoles Rise of arcades Home computers Handhelds Next generation consoles Games genres. In the beginning .

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Multimedia Games Development COM429

Week 8 Evolution and Genres


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Lecture overview

  • Game beginnings

  • Rise of home consoles

  • Rise of arcades

  • Home computers

  • Handhelds

  • Next generation consoles

  • Games genres


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In the beginning

  • Evolution of the video game industry can be traced back to pinball and before.

  • Automatic Industries Whiffle machine (1931) was one of the first coin operated devices.

  • Evolved to electric machines (1933) with the addition of cash pay out (later banned)


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Early video games

  • Generally agreed that W.Higginbotham invented the first video game

  • Oscilloscope based tennis game


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Early video games

  • Spacewar (1961), Steve Russell

  • Used toggle switches and allowed two players to control ships which fired torpedoes at each other

  • Generally accepted as the first real video game


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Early video games

  • Ralph Baer (1972) Magnavox Odyssey

  • Form of ping pong using a moving ball and player controlled paddles.

  • Game box, two simple controllers and TV as a display


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Early video games: Atari

  • Nolan Bushnell formed Atari in 1972

  • First commercial success was Pong


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Rise of home consoles

  • Home Pong (Atari) 1975

  • Telstar (1976)

  • Fairchild Channel F (1976) used programmable cartridges


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Rise of home consoles

  • Atari 2600 (1977)

  • Magnavox Odyssey 2 (1978)

  • Mattel Electronics Intellivision (1979)


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Rise of arcades

  • Taito Gunfight (1975)

  • Exidy Games Death Race (1976)

  • Football/Space Invaders (1978)


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Rise of arcades

  • Lunar Lander, Atari (1979)

  • Asteroids, Atari (1979)

  • Pac-Man, Namco (1980)

  • Battlezone, Atari (FPS) (1980)


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Rise of arcades

  • Donkey Kong, Nintendo (1981)

  • Frogger, Centipede (1981)

  • Pole Position, Joust (1982)

  • Mario Bros, Spy Hunter (1983)


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Home consoles evolve

  • Atari ports Space Invaders to the 2600 (1980)

  • Activision formed (1980)

  • Atari ports Pac-Man to the 2600 (1981)

  • Release of E.T. on Atari 2600 (Failed) (1982)

  • Failed release of the Atari 5200 game console

  • General Consumer Electronics Vectrex (1982)

  • Coleco releases Colecovision (1982)

  • Both consoles failed, industry crashed (1984)


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Industry crash 1983-1984

Video game market collapsed in 1984. Factors for

collapse include

  • Lack of innovation

  • Over supply

  • Poor strategic choices by Atari

  • Arrival of home computer

  • Press/public perception (Fad)


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Rise of the home computer

Home computers began to grow in popularity

  • Use as a gaming platform

  • VIC 20, Commodore (1981)

  • Commodore 64 (1982)

  • Amiga

  • Apple II

  • IBM and IBM clones

    Arrival of developers e.g. EA, Lucas Arts


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Consoles:Nintendo/Sega

  • Famicom, Nintendo (1984)

  • Launched as Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in USA (1985)

  • Sega Master System, Sega (1986)

    Console market was reborn


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Nintendo/Sega

  • Sega Genesis console (16-bit)

  • Nintendo Super NES (1991)

  • Introduced the world to Sonic the Hedgehog


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Rise of the arcades II

  • Street Fighter, Capcom (1987)

  • Street Fighter II, Capcom (1991)

  • Mortal Kombat, Midway (1992)


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Rise of the arcades IIl

  • Fighting games revived arcades but they never fully recovered

  • Arcades focussed on high end games with specialised hardware


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Handheld machines

  • Atari Lynx (1989)

  • Nintendo Game Boy (1990)

  • NEC TurboExpress (1990)

  • Sega Game Gear (1991)

  • Game Boy Colour (2001)

  • Nintendo Game Boy (2003)

  • Nokia N-Gage (2003)

  • Nintendo dual-screen (2004)

  • PSP (2005)


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Rise of the home computer II

  • SimCity (1989)

  • Myst (1993)

  • Doom, Id Software (1993)

  • First-person shooter/multiplayer gaming


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Console wars (1990’s)

  • Sega Saturn (1994)

  • Sony Play station (1994)

  • Nintendo 64 (1996)

    Market supported all versions


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Console wars (2000+)

  • Sega Dreamcast (1999)

  • Sony Play station 2 (2000)

  • Nintendo Gamecube (2001)

  • Microsoft Xbox (2001)

  • Sega Dreamcast withdrawn (2001)

  • Internet connectivity on consoles (2002)


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Console wars (2005+)

Microsoft 360 (2005)

  • 3 core processor

  • Wireless

  • Hard-drive

  • Network support

  • High-end graphics


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Console wars (2005+)

Nintendo Wii (2006)


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Console wars (2005+)

  • Play station 3 (2006)



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Games (2010+)

  • Multi-touch

  • Brain computer interface




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Game Genres

  • Numerous types of video games

  • Each can be broadly classified as belonging to a particular genre

  • Appearance of games in the same genre can look different but will share similar characteristics

  • Have common design problems

  • Share similar gameplay/mechanics


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Genres: Adventure Games

  • Typically story-based

  • High level of puzzle solving to complete game

  • First, second or third person perspective

  • Typically vast complex world, interesting plot lines and diverse characters

  • No temporal constraints (not real time)

  • Game waits for player action

Tomb Raider

Myst 1993


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Genres: Action Games

  • Typically real-time games with short reaction times

  • First-person shooter (FPS) e.g. Doom, Call of Duty and Unreal Tournament

  • Shooting games e.g. Space Invaders

  • Computer generated or human players opponents

  • Fast pace with less focus on puzzle solving


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Genres: Role-Playing Games

  • Role-playing games typically involve heroes and quests

  • Based in large complex worlds with dynamic storyline

  • High level of player management of characters

  • Characters evolve and gain skills

  • High level of combat included to gain skills/magic or money

  • Diverse range of characters

Final Fantasy

World of Warcraft


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Genres: Strategy Games

  • Resource management to fulfill objectives

  • Trade off related to materials, buildings

  • Turn based or real-time

  • Can be either turn-based or real-time

  • Human or AI opponents

Rome: Total War

Command and conquer


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Genres: Simulations

  • Simulations (serious) emulate real world

  • Accuracy is important

  • Requires effort to learn elements of games

  • Typically simulate complex machinery e.g. Aircraft

  • Simulations (trivial) simplified to facilate easy game play

Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004


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Genres: Sports Games

  • Players typically participate in sporting events

  • Manager or coaching roles

  • Scenario involved single match or entire season

  • High level of accuracy needed to reproduce the rules and strategies of the game

Madden NFL 2007


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Genres: Fighting Games

  • Control figures on screen

  • Use combo’s to attack opponents/defend

  • Basic attacks and complex combinations to master

  • Short periods of action

  • Side view (multiple cameras)

Virtual Fighter 5


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Genres: Casual Games

  • Easy-to-play, short length games

  • Little or no learning curve

  • Hearts/solitaire

  • Adapted from TV

  • Players familiar with format so must be followed

  • Players generally want to drop into and out of these games quickly.


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Genres: God Games

  • Games with general objective

  • Players encouraged to experiment

  • No correct way to play

  • Typically open ended

Black & White 2


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Genres: Puzzle Games

  • Intellectual challenge

  • Solution is real objective

  • Real-time or not

Tetris


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Genres: Educational Games

  • Used to teach while entertaining (edutainment)

  • Generally aimed at a younger audience

  • Content must be appropriate

Disney Learning Adventure


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Genres: Serious Games

Apply of game technologies/skills for non-

entertainment applications e.g.

  • Business/medical/educational/military applications

Business game Pixelearning


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Cross Genres

  • Hybrids: Survival horror in space


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Genres: Multiplayer /Online

  • Covers any of genres discussed but includes multiplayer network play

  • Hundreds/thousands of players

  • May evolve into online communities

  • Just starting off

World of Warcraft



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Multimedia Games Development COM429

Week 8 Evolution and Genres


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