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Media Politics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Media & Politics. Overview. The Media as a Political Institution Types & Forms of Media Political Uses of Media Role of Media. Media as Political Institution. Political Figures. The People. Media as Political Institution. Political Figures. The People.

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overview
Overview
  • The Media as a Political Institution
  • Types & Forms of Media
  • Political Uses of Media
  • Role of Media
media as political institution
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

media as political institution4
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

Democracy presupposes a tight connection between political leaders and the people

media as political institution5
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

How to reach each other?

Direct contact options

media as political institution6
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

Direct contact options have limited capacity to reach mass audience though

media as political institution7
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

media as political institution8
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

Use media to reach the people, but message is “mediated” by the media

media as political institution9
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

Use media to reach political leaders, but message is “mediated” by the media

media as political institution10
Media as Political Institution
  • Media has a pivotal role to play in democracy
  • An informed electorate is essential to democratic politics
  • For politicians to represent the “will of the people,” they need to know what the people want
types and forms of media
Types and Forms of Media
  • Basic media types:
    • television
    • radio
    • print
    • internet
    • cinema
    • music
    • advertising
types and forms of media12
Types and Forms of Media
  • In U.S., most of these are for profit enterprises
  • Need for profit shapes content delivered
  • Profits derive from ratings, so ratings drives content delivered
  • Presents possibility of conflicting aims of political figures and media owners
types and forms of media15
Types and Forms of Media
  • Most of the information and programming in the media is not necessarily overtly political
  • That is, much is “entertainment” rather than information
political uses of media
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media17
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media18
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media19
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is to change political beliefs or behavior

Implicit

political uses of media20
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

Explicit

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media21
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political, but with no intent to influence political behavior or beliefs

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is change political beliefs or behavior

Implicit

political uses of media22
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Editorials Documentaries

News

Explicit

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media23
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political, but with no intent to influence political behavior or beliefs

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is change political beliefs or behavior

Whatever political content and consequences that may exist are unintentional

Implicit

political uses of media24
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

News

Explicit

Vast majority of entertainment programming

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media25
Political Uses of Media
  • Political leaders in U.S. need media, but they have little direct opportunity to truly shape and control message that is being delivered
political uses of media26
Political Uses of Media
  • Political Leaders prefer to use unfiltered content -- they get their message right to the people
political uses of media27
Political Uses of Media

Political

Figures

The People

Most political leaders prefer this sort of direct interaction, but they also recognize the limitations of this approach and the necessity of media assistance in mass democracy

political uses of media28
Political Uses of Media
  • But in the US, where media is not under direct government control, executives, producers/editors, and reporters may have different agenda.
  • So...
political uses of media29
Political Uses of Media
  • Types of media content in terms of relative levels of control between politician and media outlet:
    • unmediated
    • partly mediated
    • mediated
political uses of media30
Political Uses of Media

Unmediated Content:

  • Political figure has direct and immediate access to the public
political uses of media31
Political Uses of Media

Partly Mediated

  • Political figure uses media and media has partial element of control in dissemination and/or content of the message
political uses of media32
Political Uses of Media
  • Because news outlets need content, politicians can use that need to place information in the media
    • press releases
    • news briefings/press conferences
    • leaks
political uses of media33
Political Uses of Media
  • Interest groups also recognize that and likewise provide information and content to the media:
    • press releases
    • news briefings/press conferences
political uses of media34
Political Uses of Media

Fully Mediated

  • Media controls dissemination and/or content of the message
political uses of media35
Political Uses of Media
  • Political figures loathe this sort of content because it is beyond their control
  • Forces politicians to react rather than to control events/story
media practices
Media Practices
  • Agenda setting
    • determining which stories are important and the relative importance of each story
  • Framing
    • determining what element of a story* is “newsworthy” and how that element is going to be presented to the public
  • Interpreting
    • determining the “meaning” and significance of a story

*Keep in mind the structural requirements of a story:

characters, drama, finality

media practices37
Media Practices

All of these activities take the control of information further away from political figures and, simultaneously, give greater control to media figures

roles of the media
Roles of the Media

Surveillance

For the most part, the media bring issues, institutions,

events, individuals, and organizations to publicattention

roles of the media39
Roles of the Media

Surveillance determines the extent to which political issues will receive attention and the kind of attention they will receive; which political demands make it to the surface and which remain hidden or obscured

e.g., Abu Ghraib, no WMDs, teen pregnancies, etc.

e.g, social security, illegal drugs,

the environment,healthcare

roles of the media40
Roles of the Media
  • The media, through its surveillance function and via its coverage and content, effectively define what is important or not, what is relevant or not, and why
roles of the media41
Roles of the Media
  • This of course does not mean that all coverage is beneficial
  • Sensationalized or erroneous stories can undermine public confidence
  • For instance, local news tends to focus on crime stories, which have the effect of undermining security and sense of safety, thereby creating conditions for greater crime
roles of the media42
Roles of the Media
  • At the same time, stories which do not readily lend themselves to media practices or structures may be doomed for inattention
  • “Big” stories involving institutions/processes rather than individual actors tend not to receive close media attention
  • For instance: global warming, poverty, racism, sexism are not well served in most media forms, particularly the one with the greatest audience (network news)
roles of the media43
Roles of the Media
  • Another major function of the media is interpretation
  • That is, when the media cover a story, they not only report, they also contextualize (frame) and interpret the story: what it means, why it’s important, what are the causes and effects
  • What are the political implications of this media role?
roles of the media44
Roles of the Media
  • For example, in the debate on interrogation techniques on terrorist suspects, President Bush and the Republicans (on one hand) and anti-war groups (on the other) have each been trying to have the media frame the debate on their terms
roles of the media45
Roles of the Media

Socialization

  • Another major function of the media is socialization, or the process by which the values, norms, beliefs, and mores, of the culture are transmitted from one generation to the next.
  • Most of the information that young people get about the political world is derived from the media (rather than say parents, schools, churches, or the government itself).
roles of the media46
Roles of the Media

For most people, the media provide the basic information that allows for the transformation of political and social beliefs over time.

roles of the media47
Roles of the Media

Manipulation

  • Through the stories covered, and the framing of those stories, the media (reporters, producers, editors, publishers) are in a position to shape public opinion
media democracy
Media & Democracy
  • Which raises question of how “we the people” can control the media?
media democracy51
Media & Democracy
  • Growth of blogs and internet driven news content
  • Benefit of decentralized control of content
  • Cost of oversite/editorial control. How to ascertain the reliability of the information delivered and received online?
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