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Kingdom Animalia. Kingdom Animalia. They are complex, multicellular organisms Their cells have a nucleus and organelles Their cells do not have a cell wall Most of them can move about freely from place to place

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KingdomAnimalia


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Kingdom Animalia

  • They are complex, multicellular organisms

  • Their cells have a nucleus and organelles

  • Their cells do not have a cell wall

  • Most of them can move about freely from place to place

  • They lack chlorophyll and obtain their food by feeding on the body parts of other organisms

  • They have specialized systems for detecting the environment, movement and coordinating body functions


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Classification of Animals

Animals

Vertebrates (with backbone)

Invertebrates (without backbone)




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Invertebrates

The major groups of invertebrates are:

  • Coelenterates/Cnidarians

  • Flatworms

  • Roundworms

  • Ringed worms

  • Arthropods

  • Molluscs

  • Echinoderms


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Cnidarians(Coelenterates)


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Cnidarians

  • They have a soft, sac-like body with one opening forming the mouth and anus

  • They have tentacles with stinging cells which can paralyze organisms

  • They live in fresh or sea water

  • Examples: jellyfish, coral, sea anemone and Hydra


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Anemone

Bubble Coral

Hydra




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Flatworms

  • They have a long and flattened body

  • Some are human parasites, which obtain nutrients from the human body

  • Examples: tapeworm, liverfluke and planarian


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Planarian

Tapeworm

Liverfluke



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Roundworms

  • They have a small, cylindrical body with two pointed ends

  • Their body is long and unsegmented

  • Some of them are free living and some are parasites in plants and animals

  • Examples: Ascaris and hookworm


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Hookworm

Ascaris



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Ringed Worms

  • They have an elongated body with segments

  • They have chaetae (singular: chaeta), i.e. bristle-like hair, for movement

  • They live in soil or water

  • Examples: earthworm and leech



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Earthworm

Leech



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Arthropods

  • They are protected by a hard exoskeleton

  • They have jointedlegs

  • Their body is divided into distinct regions made up of segments

  • The number of types of arthropods in the world are more than the number of types of other animals put together


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4 Groups of Arthropods

  • Crustaceans

  • Arachnids

  • Myriapods

  • Insects


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Crustaceans

  • They have five or more pairs of jointed legs and two pairs of antennae (singular: antenna)

  • They are mainly aquatic

  • They use gills for gas exchange

  • Examples: shrimp, crab, water flea, lobster and woodlouse


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Lobster

Crab

Woodlouse

Shrimp



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Arachnids

  • They have four pairs of jointed legs

  • They have no antennae

  • They mainly live on land

  • Their body is divided into two parts: head and abdomen

  • Examples: spider, scorpion and mite


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Spider

Scorpion

Mite


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Myriapods

  • They have a long and segmented body

  • They have many pairs of legs

  • They are terrestrial animals

  • Examples: centipede (one pair of legs on each segment) and millipede (two pairs of legs on each segment)


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Millipede

Centipede


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Insects

  • They have clearly defined head, thorax and abdomen

  • They have three pairs of jointed legs and two pairs of wings

  • They have one pair of antennae

  • They have one pair of compoundeyes

  • They are the most numerous animals in the world

  • Some insects undergo metamorphosis during their development from larva to adult stage

  • Examples: butterfly, grasshopper, bee, beetle, dragonfly, cockroach and mosquito


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Grasshopper

Cocoon

Butterfly

Mosquito



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Molluscs

  • They have a soft and unsegmented body, usually with a hard shell protecting the body

  • Most of them have a muscular foot

  • Most of them live in water

  • Examples: snail, clam, squid and octopus


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Snail

Clam

Octopus

Squid



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Echinoderms

  • They have a radially symmetrical body (i.e. having a symmetrical arrangement of radiating parts about a central point)

  • They have a tough skin which may be covered with spines

  • They live in sea water

  • Examples: starfish, sea urchin and sea cucumber


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Starfish

Sea Urchin

Sea Cucumber



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Vertebrates

The major groups of vertebrates are:

  • Fish

  • Amphibian

  • Reptile

  • Bird

  • Mammal



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Fish

  • They have a moist skin covered with scales


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Fish scales

–for protection


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Fish

  • They have a moist skin covered with scales

  • They are aquatic vertebrates

  • They use gills for gas exchange

  • They have a streamlined body, which reduces water resistance during swimming

  • They have fins for swimming and maintaining balance in water


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Fish

  • They lay eggs in water



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Fish

  • They lay eggs in water

  • Their body temperature changes with the environment, i.e. they are poikilotherms

  • Examples: shark, eel, goldfish and sea horse


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Eel

Sea Horse

Goldfish

Shark

Angel Fish



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Amphibians

  • They have a “naked” and moist skin

  • Tadpoles, the young stage of amphibians, are fish-like and live in water. The adults are partly aquatic and partly terrestrial

  • Tadpoles have gills for gas exchange whereas the adults may use the skin, mouth and lungs for gas exchange


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Amphibians

  • They have two pairs of limbs with five digits each in the adult stage for movement

  • They lay eggs in water

  • They are poikilotherms

  • Examples: frog, toad and salamander


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Frog

Salamander

Toad



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Reptiles

  • They have a dry, hard skin covered with scales

  • Many live on land

  • They have lungs for gas exchange

  • They lay eggs enclosed in a hard shell on land

  • They are poikilotherms

  • Examples: lizard, snake, tortoise and crocodile


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Snake

Lizard

Crocodile

Tortoise


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Dinosaurs –

The Terrible Lizards

Brachiosaurus

Tyrannosaurus



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Birds

  • Their skin is covered with feathers

  • They have two pairs of limbs: the forelimbs are modified to form a pair of wings for flying

  • Most of the birds can fly but some cannot, such as penguins and ostriches

  • They have no teeth. Their jaws are pointed and form a beak

  • They have lungs for gas exchange


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Birds

  • They lay eggs enclosed in a hard shell on land

  • The parents look after their young

  • They maintain a constant body temperature, i.e. they are homoiotherms

  • Examples: swallow, penguin, owl, duck, ostrich, robin and pigeon


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Owl

Bird Eggs

Duck


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Anteater

Platypus

Kangaroo

Koala Bear


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Classification of Vertebrates

Vertebrates

Fish

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

Mammals

  • Scales

  • Slimy skins,

  • no scales

  • Dry scales

  • Feathers

  • Hairs

  • 4 limbs

  • 4 limbs

  • 2 limbs +

  • 2 wings

  • 4 limbs

  • Fins

  • Lungs

  • Lungs

  • Lungs

  • Gills

  • Gills (Larvae)

  • Lungs (Adult)

  • Eggs

  • Shelled-

  • eggs

  • Shelled-

  • eggs

  • Born alive

  • Eggs

Cannot control their own body temperature

Can control their own body

temperature

  • Mammary glands

  • Beaks



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OSTRICHES!!!

The ostrich is the biggest bird in the world. It can weigh up to 300 lbs!! Ostriches are rapid runners – they can attain a speed of about 65 km/hour. Ostriches also lay the biggest eggs among the birds. An ostrich egg is about 3.3 pounds and is the size of a baby’s head. FYI, one ostrich egg can make an omelet for 10 people!!!!!



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Mammals

  • They have hair on their skin

  • They have lungs for gas exchange

  • Their young develop inside the mother’s body and are born alive

  • After birth, the young are fed by milk from the mother’s mammary glands

  • The parents look after their young


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Mammals

  • They have highly developed brains

  • They are homoiotherms and have a well-developed system for regulating the body temperature

  • Examples: giraffe, dog, lion, dolphin, kangaroo, panda, cat, wolf and human


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Primitive Mammals

  • They lay eggs instead of giving birth to the young alive

  • Some of them carry their eggs in pockets/pouches in the abdomen

  • When the young are hatched from the egg, they are fed by milk produced in the mother’s mammary glands

  • Some pouched mammals do not lay eggs, but their young are born in a very immature state and need to be carried inside the mother’s pouch immediately after birth for further development

  • They are found mainly in Australia


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