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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART. By DR. M. VEGO JMO DEPARTMENT, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI. “ WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.” FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747. TERMS USED. GRAND TACTICS

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Introduction to operational art l.jpg

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART

By

DR. M. VEGO

JMO DEPARTMENT,

U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI.


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WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.”

FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747


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TERMS USED

  • GRAND TACTICS

  • OPERATIONS (OPERATIONS)

  • OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONSKUNST)

  • OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIVNOYE ISKUSSTVO)

  • OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP (OPERATIONSFUEHRUNG; OPERATIVE FUEHRUNG)

  • OPERATIONAL WARFARE

  • OPERATIONAL WARFIGHTING


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HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART

STRATEGY

OPERATIONS

(Operational Art)

TACTICS

PPT-98-VEG0-38A (PFR)


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ON OPERATIONAL ART

  • AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS

  • IT IS APPLIED ACROSS THE ENTIRE “OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM”

  • IT DEALS WITH THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANNING, PREPARING, CONDUCTING, AND SUSTAINING MAJOR OPERATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT ACCOMPLISHING OPERATIONAL OR STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER.


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THE NATION THAT WILL INSIST ON DRAWING A BROAD LINE BETWEEN THE FIGHTING MAN AND THE THINKING MAN IS LIABLE TO FIND ITS FIGHTING DONE BY FOOLS AND ITS THINKING DONE BY COWARDS.”

SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS BUTLER


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MILITARY SCIENCE AND MILITARY ART

MILITARY

SCIENCE

STRATEGY

TACTICS

MILITARY

ART

OPERATIONS

(OPERATIONAL ART)

PPT-98-VEG0-10A (PFR)


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IMPORTANCE

  • TACTICS ALONE CANNOT ACCOMPLISH STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER OR WIN THE WAR; RESULTS OF TACTICAL ACTIONS ARE USEFUL ONLY WHEN LINKED TOGETHER AS A PART OF SOME LARGER DESIGN FRAMED BY STRATEGY AND ORCEHSTRATED BY OPERATIONAL ART

  • THE GAP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS IS TOO LARGE TO BE BRIDGED WITHOUT AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE -- OPERATIONAL ART


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  • OPERATIONAL ART SEQUENCES AND SYNCHRONIZES SERIES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS TO ACCOMPLISH OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF MAJOR OPERATIONS; STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER ARE NORMALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS

  • OPERATIONAL ART ALLOWS A SMALLER, BUT BETTER TRAINED AND SKILLFULLY LED FORCE GUIDED BY SOUND STRATEGY TO DEFEAT QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY A MUCH STRONGER FORCE.


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  • OPERATIONAL ART HELPS TO AVOID MORE COSTLY AND TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS

  • IT PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK AND KEY INPUTS FOR WRITING SERVICE AND JOINT/COMBINED DOCTRINE

  • IT REINFORCES THE NEED FOR THE CLOSEST COOPERATION AMONG THE SERVICES -- JOINTNESS.


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CHARACTERISTICS TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS

  • MOVEMENTS OF LARGE MULTI-SERVICE OR MULTI-NATIONAL FORCES OVER LARGE PART OF THE THEATER

  • THE DEPLOYMENT FORMS THE VERY BASIS OF A PLAN FOR CAMPAIGN OR MAJOR OPERATION

  • SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER


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PREREQUISITES TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS

  • A SUFFICIENT PHYSICAL SPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF LARGE FORMATIONS

  • FULL MASTERY OF TACTICS

  • THE COMMANDERS MUST HAVE THAT RARE ABILITY TO THINK BEYOND THE REALM OF PHYSICAL COMBAT

  • THE EXISTENCE OF THE THEATER-WIDE STRUCTURE (C2; C2W; INTELLIGENCE; FIRES; LOGISTICS; AND PROTECTION).


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COMPONENTS TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS


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MILITARY ART COMPONENTS TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS

COMPONENT

LEVEL OF WAR

THEORY AND PRACTICE

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY

OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGY)

  • STRATEGIC

    • NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

    • THEATER-STRATEGIC

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

CONFLICT/WAR TERMINATION

ISSUING STRATEGIC GUIDANCE

DETERMINATION

OF PRIMARY

AND SECONDARY

THEATERS

STRATEGY

ALLOCATION OF MILITARY RESOURCES

AMONG THEATERS

OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE

BUILDING ALLIANCE/COALITION

ENHANCING COUNTRY’S GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION

NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY

THEORY AND PRACTICE

OPERATIONAL-STRATEGIC

INPUT TO CONFLICT/

WAR TERMINATION

OPERATIONAL

FACTORS

OPERATIONAL

FUNTIONS

OPERATIONAL

ART

(OPERATIONS)

OPERATIONAL ART

(OPERATIONS)

OPERATIONAL

LEADERSHIP

OPERATIONAL

PLANNING

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

TRAINING

ELEMENTS OF

OPERATIONAL

WARFARE

PRINCIPLES OF

OPERATIONAL

WARFARE

METHODS OF COMBAT

FORCE EMPLOYMENT

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL

THEORY AND PRACTICE

COMBAT

ARMS TACTICS

TACTICS OF

BRANCHES

METHODS OF TACTICAL

EMPLOYMENT

TACTICS

TACTICS OF

WEAPONS

PLATFORMS

TACTICAL

PLANNING

TACTICAL

TACTICS

TACTICS OF

TYPE OF SHIPS/

AIRCRAFT

TACTICS OF

COMBINED

ARMS

TYPES OF

SHIPS / AIRCRAFT

TACTICAL

FUNCTIONS

PPT-99-VEGO-40 (PFR)


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART AND THE LEVELS OF WAR

COMPONENTS OF

MILITARY ART

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

LEVEL OF WAR

COMMAND ECHELON

GLOBAL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEVEL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

STRATEGY

THEATER OF WAR

THEATER-STRATEGIC LEVEL

THEATER-STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL ART

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

(LAND, MARITIME)

AREA OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL LEVEL

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL

(LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

TACTICS

COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR)

TACTICAL LEVEL

TACTICAL

(LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

PPT-97VEG024A (PFR)


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OPERATIONAL FACTORS LEVELS OF WAR


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OPERATIONAL FACTORS LEVELS OF WAR

OBJECTIVE

OPERATIONAL

FACTORS

SPACE-

FORCE

SPACE

TIME

FORCE

TIME-SPACE

TIME-FORCE

BALANCING

FORCE

SPACE -

TIME -

INFORMATION

PPT-96VEG040B


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THE FACTOR OF SPACE LEVELS OF WAR

GEOSTRATEGIC

POSITIONS

DISTANCES

SIZE

FACTOR

SPACE

MILITARY

ORGANIZATION

OF SPACE

SHAPE

ELEMENTS OF

THE THEATER

PHYSICAL

CHARACTERISTICS

DYNAMICS

OF SPACE

PPT-97VEG022 3/10/2014


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DURATION LEVELS OF WAR

OF WAR

THE FACTOR OF TIME

DECISION

CYCLE

COLLECTING, PROCESSING

AND EVALUATING

INFORMATION

OPENING

HOSTILITIES

MANEUVER/COUNTER-

MANEUVER

PLANNING

WARNING

TIME BETWEEN

CONSECUTIVE

MAJOR OPERATIONS/

CAMPAIGNS

REACTION

ACCOMPLISHMENT OF

THE MISSION

MOBILIZATION

TIME FOR:

TRANSIT

DEPLOYMENT

COMMITMENT OF

RESERVES

REDEPLOYMENT

TIMING

REGENERATION OF

COMBAT POWER

PREPARATION

MASTERING NEW

WEAPONS/

EQUIPMENT

BRINGING UP

REINFORCEMENTS

ETC.

FOR WAR

FORCE

RECONSTITUTION

FOR A MAJOR

OPERATION/CAMPAIGN

CONCENTRATION/COUNTER-

CONCENTRATION

PPT-96VEG032A (PFR)


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COMBAT POTENTIAL vs. COMBAT POWER LEVELS OF WAR

PEACETIME

HOSTILITIES

NON-COMBAT

COMBAT

COMBAT

EFFECTIVENESS

DESIGNED

COMBAT POTENTIAL

COMBAT POWER

ENEMY

COMBAT

POWER

ACTIVATION

OF COMBAT

POWER

AVAILABLE

RELATIVE

COMBAT

POWER

PPT-00-VEGO-38 (PFR)


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COMBAT POWER LEVELS OF WAR

PEACETIME

HOSTILITIES

NON-COMBAT

COMBAT

FORCE

TIME

AVAILABLE COMBAT

POTENTIAL

PLUS

INFLUENCES

OF:

COMBAT

POWER

SPACE

SURPRISE

DECEPTION

FATIGUE

CHANCE / LUCK

ETC.

FOG OF WAR

DOCTRINE

FRICTION

INTELLIGENCE

FREEDOM OF ACTION / INITIATIVE

LOGISTICAL SUSTAINMENT

DECISIONS MADE

PPT-00-VEGO-36 (PFR)


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THE THEATER LEVELS OF WAR


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THEATER STRUCTURE AND LEVELS OF WAR LEVELS OF WAR

LEVELS OF WAR

ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE

THEATER (OF WAR)

NATIONAL OR

ALLIANCE/COALITION

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

THEATER-STRATEGIC

THEATER-STRATEGIC

(OR MILITARY

STRATEGIC)

OBJECTIVE

THEATER OF

OPERATIONS

THEATER OF

OPERATIONS

THEATER OF

OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL

AREAS OF

OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL

OBJECTIVE

OR

MAJOR TACTICAL

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL

AIR

(SPACE)

MARITIME

LAND

JOINT

COMBAT

ZONES/SECTORS

TACTICAL

OBJECTIVE

TACTICAL

AIR (SPACE)

MARITIME

LAND

PPT-97VEG035


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CENTRAL LEVELS OF WAR

(INTERIOR)

THEATER GEOEMETRY

POSITIONS

PARALLEL

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

CONVERGING

EXTERIOR

THEATER

GEOMETRY

DIVERGING

TACTICAL

OPERATIONAL

STRATEGIC

LINE OF

OPERATIONS

(LOO)

MAIN

INTERMEDIATE

BASE OF

OPERATIONS

SINGLE

DOUBLE

SHORT

SHORT

MULTIPLE

LONG

LONG

PHYSICAL

OBJECTIVES

DECISIVE

POINTS

LINE OF

COMMUNICATIONS

(LOC)

TACTICAL

MINOR

MAJOR

LAND

(LLOC)

OPERATIONAL

CENTRAL

(INTERIOR)

GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED

STRATEGIC

SEA

(SLOC)

FORCE-ORIENTED

OCEANIC

AIR

(ALOC)

CYBER-ORIENTED

EXTERIOR

COASTAL

PPT-96VEG08


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THEATER GEOMETRY LEVELS OF WAR

ENEMY

CENTER OF

GRAVITY

LOO

SLOC

PRINCIPAL

OBJECTIVE

NEW LOOS

LOO

LLOC

INTERMEDIATE

BASE

OPERATIONS

BASE OF

OPERATIONS

LOO

ALOC

NEW LOOS

LOO

DECISIVE POINTS

GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED

FORCE=ORIENTED

97-VEG032.PPT


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OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS LEVELS OF WAR


Operational functions in generic terms l.jpg
OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS LEVELS OF WAR(IN GENERIC TERMS)

COMMAND

AND CONTROL

(C2)

COMMAND, CONTROL,

COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS

(C3)

COMMAND & CONTROL

WARFARE (C2W)

INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL

FIRES

OPERATIONAL

INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL

FUNCTIONS

FUNCTION

OPERATIONAL

LOGISTICS

SUPPORT

OPERATIONAL

PROTECTION

C2

PPT-96VEG07


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NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP LEVELS OF WAR

NATIONAL ALLIANCE AND/OR COALITION POLICY & STRATEGY

THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER

THEATER CAMPAIGNS & LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT

THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER

A SINGLE CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL – TACTICAL COMMANDER

A SINGLE MAJOR OPERATION

TACTICAL COMMANDER

TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, ATTACKS, ETC.)

SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE EFFORT

LEVEL OF WAR

LEVELS OF COMMAND

IN SUPPORT OF

STRATEGIC

INTELLIGENCE

STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL

TACTICAL

INTELLIGENCE

TACTICAL

PPT-96VEG03A (PFR)


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C2W COMPONENTS LEVELS OF WAR

INFORMATION

WARFARE (IW)

INTELLIGENCE

SUPPORT

OPERATIONS

SECURITY

(OPSEC)

ELECTRONIC

WARFARE

(EW)

PSYCHOLOGICAL

OPERATIONS

(PSYOPS)

C2W

EW SUPPORT

MILITARY

DECEPTION

(MILDEC)

ELECTRONIC ATTACK

(EA)

ELECTRONIC PROTECTION

(EP)

PHYSICAL

DESTRUCTION

PPT-96VEG02


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TYPE OF OPERATIONAL FIRES LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONAL

FIRES

LETHAL

NON-LETHAL

CONVENTIONAL

WEAPONS

AIR-

BASED

ELECTRONIC

WARFARE (EW)

WEAPONS OF

MASS DESTRUCTION

(WMD)

SEA-

BASED

SPECIAL

FORCES

NUCLEAR

GROUND-

BASED

ELECTRONIC

ATTACK (EA)

CHEMICAL

BIOLOGICAL

PSYCHOLOGICAL

OPERATIONS

(PSYOP)

PPT-96VEG011


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SCALE OF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT LEVELS OF WAR

THE COMMUNICATIONS ZONE

THEATER OF WAR

THEATER OF WAR

COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR)

HOME

BASE

THEATER

SUSTAINMENT

BASE

INTER-THEATER LOCs

INTRA-THEATER LOCs

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

STRATEGIC LOGISTICS

OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS

TACTICALLOGISTICS

PPT-97VEG020 (PFR)


Operational protection in generic terms l.jpg
OPERATIONAL PROTECTION LEVELS OF WAR(IN GENERIC TERMS)

AIR DEFENSE

AND AIRSPACE CONTROL

PROTECTION OF

INFORMATION

COLLECTION OF

INTELLIGENCE FOR

INDICATORS &

WARNING (I&W)

AIR BASE GROUND DEFENSE (ABGD)

FORCE PROTECTION

COMPONENTS

MARITIME SECURITY OF PORTS / HARBORS

REAR AREA

DEFENSE

DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD)

PROTECTION

OF LOGISTICS

INFRASTRUCTURE

PPT-99-VEG0-61 (PFR)



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STAGES AND ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT LEVELS OF WAR

MILITARY DECISION-MAKING AND PLANNING

MAJOR STAGES

DEPLOYMENT

COMBAT

EMPLOYMENT

&

SUSTAINMENT

CONFLICT/

WAR

TERMINATION

POST-

HOSTILITIES

ACTIONS

RECON-

STITUTION

PRE-

DEPLOYMENT

ACTIVITIES

PEACETIME

MOBILIZATION

PEACETIME

REDEPLOYMENT

DEMOBILIZATION

OPERATIONAL/

TACTICAL

STRATEGIC

OFFENSE

OR

DEFENSE

CRITICAL FACTORS

PURSUIT/

COUNTER-PURSUIT

CENTERS OF

GRAVITY

CONCENTRATION/

COUNTER CONCENTRATION

COMBAT

SUCCESS

CULMINATING

POINT

REGENERATION

OF COMBAT

POWER

MANEUVER / COUNTER MANEUVER

CONSOLIDATION

OF COMBAT

SUCCESS

ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

PPT-98-VEGO-8 (PFR)

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR



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CONCEPT OF CRITICAL FACTORS LEVELS OF WAR

CRITICAL

FACTORS

“CONCRETE”

(TANGIBLE)

“ABSTRACT”

(INTANGIBLE)

CRITICAL

WEAKNESSES

CRITICAL

STRENGTHS

IF OPEN TO ATTACK

CRITICAL

VULNERABILITIES

(CVs)

OBJECTIVE(S)

CENTER OF

GRAVITY

(COG)

97-VEG033.PPT


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CRITICAL FACTORS LEVELS OF WAR

CRITICAL

FACTORS

“PHYSICAL”

(TANGIBLE)

“ABSTRACT”

(INTANGIBLE)

  • GEOGRAPHIC

  • GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION

  • GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

  • POSITIONS

  • BASE OF OPERATIONS

  • LINES OF OPERATIONS

  • LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS

  • ETC.

  • MILITARY

  • ARMED FORCES

  • INDIVIDUAL SERVICES (ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE)

  • THEATER ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE

  • NUMBERED ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE

  • MAJOR FORCE ELEMENTS (AIR CORPS, NAVAL TASK FORCES, AIR TASK FORCES)

  • TACTICAL UNITS (DIVISIONS, BRIGADES, REGIMENTS, NAVAL SQUADRONS / GROUPS, AIR DIVISIONS / REGIMENTS / SQUADRONS)

  • INTELLIGENCE

  • C3I NODES

  • LOGISTICAL SUPPORT AND SUSTAINMENT

  • BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE

  • INTELLIGENCE AND WARNING (I&W)

  • ETC.

  • POLITICAL

  • DIPLOMATIC

  • PSYCHOLOGICAL

  • WILL TO FIGHT

  • LEADERSHIP

  • ALLIANCE/COALITION COHESION

  • ALLIANCE / COALITION’S COMMUNITY OF INTERESTS

  • PUBLIC SUPPORT

  • UNITY OF COMMAND

  • SERVICE / JOINT DOCTRINE

  • MORALE

  • DISCIPLINE

  • COMBAT TRAINING

  • COMBAT READINESS

  • ETC.

  • NON-MILITARY

  • STATE ORGANIZATION

  • ECONOMY

  • MINERAL RESOURCES

  • AGRICULTURE

  • FINANCES

  • BANKING

  • ENERGY RESOURCES

  • ETC.

97-VEG030.PPT


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CENTER OF GRAVITY LEVELS OF WAR(IN GENERIC TERMS)

“IS A SOURCE OF ‘MASSED STRENGTH’ --PHYSICAL OR MORAL OR A SOURCE OF LEVERAGE WHOSE SERIOUS DEGRADATION, DISLOCATION, NEUTRALIZATION, OR DESTRUCTION WILL HAVE THE MOST DECISIVE IMPACT ON THE ENEMY’S OR ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH A GIVEN MILITARY OBJECTIVE.”


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CENTER OF GRAVITY’S COMPOSITION LEVELS OF WAR

OUTER CORE

PROTECTION

INTEGRATION

ELEMENTS

TANGIBLE

INTANGIBLE

FIREPOWER

LEADERSHIP

MANEUVER

INFORMATION

INFORMATION

INNER CORE

SUPPORT

PPT-98-VEG0-4 (PFR)


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OPERATIONAL MANEUVER LEVELS OF WAR


Maneuver l.jpg
MANEUVER LEVELS OF WAR

FORCES

SCALE

MANEUVER

GROUND

TACTICAL

AIR/

SPACE

OPERATIONAL

NAVAL

STRATEGIC

ENCIRCLEMENT

FORM

MEDIUM

SINGLE

DOUBLE

PENETRATION

LAND

COMBINED

SEA

PENETRATION

COMBINED WITH THE

ONE-SIDED

ENVELOPMENT

AIR/SPACE

ENVELOPMENT

ONE-SIDED

PENETRATION

COMBINED WITH THE

ECCENTRIC (OR CONCENTRIC)

MOVEMENT

TWO-SIDED (DOUBLE)

WIDE ENVELOPMENT

(TURNING MOVEMENT)

PPT-96VEG042


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THEORY OF CULMINATING POINT LEVELS OF WAR

FACTOR OF SPACE

CULMINATING

POINT

EQUILIBRIUM

OF RELATIVE

COMBAT POWER

ATTACKER

COMBAT POWER

DEFENDER’S

OBJECTIVE

ATTACKER’S

OBJECTIVE

FACTOR OF FORCE

FACTOR OF FORCE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

AREA OF

UNCERTAINTY

COMBAT POWER

DEFENDER

FACTOR OF TIME

PPT-00-VEG0-22 (PFR)


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ATTACKER’S CULMINATION LEVELS OF WAR

START OF

OFFENSIVE

OFFENSIVE

STALLED

FACTOR OF SPACE

STALEMATE

SPACE GAINED

CANNOT BE HELD

DIMINISHING

STRENGTH

OF THE

ATTACKER

CULMINATING POINT

OF OFFENSIVE (ATTACK)

LINES OF SUPPLIES

FACTOR OF FORCE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

ATTACKER’S

OBJECTIVE

DEFENDER

SUCCESS FORECLOSED

OF THE

STRENGTH

INCREASING

ATTACK

STALLED

FACTOR OF TIME

START OF

ATTACK

PPT-00-VEG0-24 (PFR)


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DEFENDER’S CULMINATION LEVELS OF WAR

START OF DEFENSIVE

FACTOR OF SPACE

SPACE LOST TO

THE ATTACKER

COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

DIMINISHING

STRENGTH

CULMINATING POINT OF

OF THE

ATTACKER

COUNTER-ATTACK

TACTICAL

OFFENSIVE

DEFENDER’S

OBJECTIVE

COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

COUNTER-ATTACKS

FACTOR OF FORCE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

WINDOW OF

OPPORTUNITY

OF SHIFTING TO

DEFENDER

OF THE

STRENGTH

INCREASING

COUNTER-ATTACK

START OF

DEFENSE

FACTOR OF TIME

PPT-00-VEG0-23 (PFR)


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LEVEL OF WAR LEVELS OF WAR

FACTOR OF SPACE

OCCURRENCE

CULMINATING POINT AND THE LEVELS OF WAR

WAR AS A WHOLE

CULMINATING POINT

OF VICTORY

(OR DEFEAT)

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A WAR

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

CAMPAIGNS AND MAJOR OPERATIONS

IT COULD OCCUR SEVERAL TIMES DURING A CAMPAIGN AND ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR OPERATION

CULMINATING POINT

OF OFFENSIVE

(OR DEFENSIVE)

THEATER-STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

IT COULD OCCUR

ONLY ONCE

OPERATIONAL- TACTICAL

A MAJOR OPERATION

CULMINATING POINT

OF ATTACK

(OR DEFENSE)

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT

TACTICAL

A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT

FACTOR OF TIME

PPT-00-VEG0-25 (PFR)


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REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER LEVELS OF WAR

ELEMENTS

TASK-

ORIENTED

TRAINING

LARGE-SCALE

REPLACEMENT

OF PERSONNEL

REPAIR &

REPLACEMENT

OF WEAPONS

& EQUIPMENT

REESTABLISHMENT

OF COMMAND

AND CONTROL

REST &

RECREATION

OF PERSONNEL

REPLENISHMENT

OF SUPPLIES

PPT-98-VEG0-46 (PFR)



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LEVELS OF WARTHERE HAVE EXISTED IN ALL TIMES FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ON WHICH DEPEND GOOD RESULTS IN WARFARE…. THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNCHANGING, INDEPENDENT OF THE KIND OF WEAPONS, OF HISTORICAL TIME AND OF PLACE.”

BARON ANTOINE HENRI DE JOMINI


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PRINCIPLES OF WAR LEVELS OF WAR(GENERIC)

PRINCIPLES

OF WAR

PURPOSE

TACTICAL

OPERATIONAL

STRATEGIC

SURPRISE

OBJECTIVE

SIMPLICITY

MASS

OFFENSIVE

SECURITY

MANEUVER

UNITY OF

EFFORT

ECONOMY OF

FORCE

COOPERATION

UNITY OF

COMMAND

PPT-96VEG041



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TACTICAL ACTIONS LEVELS OF WAR

  • BATTLE

  • ENGAGEMENT

  • STRIKE

  • ATTACK

  • ENCOUNTER

  • DUEL

  • SKIRMISH

  • AMBUSH

  • RAID

  • HARASSMENT

  • INFILTRATION

  • PATROL

  • SEARCH

  • SURVEILLANCE

  • OBSERVATION

  • SCOUTING

  • RECONNAISSANCE

  • ETC.

LEVELS OF WAR AND COMBAT FORCES’ EMPLOYMENT

  • A CAMPAIGN

  • MAJOR OPERATIONS

  • CAMPAIGNS

  • MAJOR OPERATIONS

  • “MILITARY OPERATIONS

  • OTHER THAN WAR” (MOOTW)

THEATER

STRATEGIC

LEVEL

OPERATIONAL

LEVEL

TACTICAL

LEVEL

PPT-98VEG049 (PFR)


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LEVELS OF COMMAND AND AND METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT LEVELS OF WAR

LEVEL OF

WAR

MILITARY

ART

METHOD

OBJECTIVES

LEVEL OF COMMAND

A SINGLE OR SEVERAL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

NATIONAL*

(OR ALLIANCE/

COALITION) LEVEL

NATIONAL

STRATEGIC

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

A SINGLE OR SEVERAL

THEATER-STRATEGIC

  • CAMPAIGNS

THEATER-

STRATEGIC

THEATER

CDR

STRATEGY

  • MAJOR OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL ART

OPERATIONAL-

STRATEGIC

A SINGLE THEATER-

STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

TO CDR**

  • A SINGLE CAMPAIGN

  • MAJOR OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL

  • A MAJOR JOINT OPERATION

OPERATIONAL-

TACTICAL

COMJTF

***

  • TACTICAL ACTIONS

  • NEO OPERATIONS

MAJOR-TACTICAL

MINOR TACTICAL

TACTICAL

COMMANDER

  • MAJOR TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES)

TACTICS

TACTICAL

  • MINOR TACTICAL ACTIONS

* NATIONAL COMMAND

AUTHORITY

** THEATER OF OPERATIONS

CINC

*** COMMANDER JOINT TASK FORCE

PPT-96VEG09A


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MAJOR OPERATIONS LEVELS OF WAR


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MAJOR OPERATION LEVELS OF WAR(IN GENERIC TERMS)

A MAJOR OPERATION CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, AND OTHER TACTICAL ACTIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME TO ACCOMPLISH AN OPERATIONAL (AND SOMETIMES STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.


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MAJOR STAGES LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONALDEPLOYMENT &CONCENTRATION

CONSOLIDATIONOF OPERATIONALSUCCESS

REDEPLOYMENT

BASE OFOPERATIONS

COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT

X

X

X

X

X

X

OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

FORCE ALFA

ENGAGEMENT

BATTLE

FORCE A

BATTLE

FORCE BRAVO

FORCE B

OPERATIONRESERVE

ENGAGEMENT

X

BATTLE

FORCE C

FORCE CHARLIE

FORCE D

ENGAGEMENT

ENGAGEMENT

FORCE DELTA

BATTLE

ENGAGEMENT

1ST PHASE

2ND PHASE…ETC

LEGEND

OPERATIONAL PAUSEREGENERATION OFCOMBAT POWER

DECISIVE POINTMINOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVEMAJOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVEOPERATIONAL OF STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

X

PPT-99-VEGO-15 (PFR)

SCHEME OF A MAJOR OPERATION


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MAJOR OPERATIONS LEVELS OF WAR

PRELIMINARY

INITIAL

SEQUENCE

CONSECUTIVE

(SUCCESSIVE)

MAJOR

OPERATIONS

MEDIUM/

SERVICE

PURPOSE

LAND

(GROUND)

OFFENSIVE

NAVAL

(MARITIME)

DEFENSIVE

DEGREE OF

SERVICE

PARTICIPATION

PRINCIPAL (MAIN)

AIR (SPACE)

SUPPORTING

(ANCILLARY)

INDEPENDENT

JOINT (MULTI-SERVICE)

COMBINED (MULTI-NATIONAL)

PPT-97VEG027


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CAMPAIGNS LEVELS OF WAR


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CAMPAIGN LEVELS OF WAR(IN GENERIC TERMS)

A CAMPAIGN CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME AND AIMED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN THEATER OF OPERATIONS.


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X LEVELS OF WAR

X

X

X

X

X

LEGEND

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVEOPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE

X

MAJOR STAGES

SCHEME OF A CAMPAIGN

REDEPLOYMENTFOR A NEWCAMPAIGN ORDEMOBILIZATION

CONSOLIDATIONOF STRATEGICSUCCESS

DEPLOYMENTSTRATEGIC INTRA-THEATER

MOBILIZATION

COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT

BASE OFOPERATIONS

MAJOR NAVALOPERATION

X

X

THEATERSTRATEGICRESERVE

JOINT /COMBINED

X

DESIREDENDSTATE

X

X

X

MAJOR LAND(GROUND)OPERATION

X

X

X

“INDEPENDENT”

MAJOR AIR(SPACE)OPERATION

X

X

X

WAR/CONFLICTTERMINATION OR ADISTINCT PHASE OF WAR

STRATEGICCONCENTRATION

PHASE I

PHASE II

PHASE III…...ETC.

OPERATIONALPAUSES

POST-HOSTILITIESACTIVITIES

RECONSTITUTION

PPT-99-VEGO-16 (PFR)


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CAMPAIGNS LEVELS OF WAR

CAMPAIGNS

TIMING

PURPOSE

SEQUENTIAL

(CONSECUTIVE)

DEFENSIVE

OFFENSIVE

OBJECTIVE

SIMULTANEOUS

(CONCURRENT)

THEATER

STRATEGIC

PLANNING

NATIONAL OR

ALLIANCE/COALITION

MILITARY STRATEGIC

UNPLANNED

SERVICE PARTICIPATION

PLANNED

OPERATIONAL

CONTINUUM

COMBINED

(MULTI-NATIONAL)

JOINT

(MULTISERVICE)

LOW INTENSITY

CONFLICT**

WAR

PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENT(MEDIUM)

GLOBAL

(GENERAL)

REGIONAL

(LOCAL)

LAND

* Denotes predominant features of the medium in which a

campaign in conducted

** MOOTW in U.S. terms

MARITIME

PPT-97VEG028


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OPERATIONAL PLANNING LEVELS OF WAR


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DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY (IN GENERIC TERMS) LEVELS OF WAR

MEANS

NATIONAL POLICY

ENDS

NATIONAL

GOALS/AIMS

NATIONAL SOURCES OF POWER

NATIONAL OBJECTIVE

TRADITIONAL

NATIONAL INTERESTS

  • POLITICAL

  • DIPLOMATIC

  • ECONOMIC

  • MILITARY

  • INFORMATIONAL

  • SCIENTIFIC

  • TECHNOLOGICAL

  • OTHER

*

VITAL

INTERESTS

NATIONAL (GRAND) STRATEGY

SUPPORTING

STRATEGIES

  • PHYSICAL SECURITY AND SURVIVAL

  • POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY

  • ECONOMIC STABILITY AND WELL BEING

  • DOMESTIC PEACE AND STABILITY

UNLIMITED

LIMITED

POLITICAL OBJECTIVE

ANNIHILATION

MILITARY STRATEGY

EROSION

(ATTRITION)

MILITARY STRATEGIC

OBJECTIVE

OFFENSIVE

OR

DEFENSIVE

**

THEATER STRATEGY

AND

THEATER-STRATEGIC

OBJECTIVE

STRATEGIC GUIDANCE

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OR COALITION POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

SYMMETRIC

OR ASYMMETRIC

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE

COURSES OF ACTION (COAs)

STRATEGIC SITUATION

STRATEGIC CONCEPTS

DECISIONS

*

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY

IN U.S. TERMS

REVISED/UPDATED MILITARY

OR THEATER STRATEGY

**

WHEN MULTIPLE THEATERS EXIST

EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND

NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER


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TYPE OF PLANNING LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONAL PLANNING

(MAJOR OPERATIONS OR CAMPAIGNS)

INTERMEDIATE MILITARY OBJECTIVES

INVERSE (REGRESSIVE) PLANNING

HERE

AND

NOW

ULTIMATE

OBJECTIVE

PROGRESSIVE PLANNING

NEARTASK

FUTURETASK

(BATTLES / ENGAGEMENTS, ETC.)

TACTICAL PLANNING

PPT-97VEG047 (PFR)


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CAMPAIGN PLAN DEVELOPMENT LEVELS OF WAR

  • COMMAND ECHELON

    • MILITARY-STRATEGIC

    • THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER (CINC)

    • THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER (CINC)

STRATEGIC

GUIDANCE

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE

STRATEGIC

VISION

  • CONCEPTS

  • OPERATIONAL

  • ORGANIZATIONAL

  • DEPLOYMENT

  • LOGISTICS

  • OTHER

STAFF

ESTIMATES

COMMANDER’S

ESTIMATE OF THE

STRATEGIC SITUATION

  • THE DECISION

  • THE DECISION STATEMENT

  • OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

  • COMMANDER’S INTENT

PLANNING

CONSIDERATIONS

CAMPAIGN PLANS

LOW INTENSITY

CONFLICT (LIC)

WAR

PPT-99-VEGO-04 (PFR)


Major operation plan development l.jpg

HIGHER COMMAND LEVELS OF WAR

AUTHORITY

MAJOR OPERATION PLAN DEVELOPMENT

  • COMMAND ECHELON

  • SERVICE COMPONENT

  • JOINT/COMBINED TASK

  • FORCE

  • ARMY GROUP

  • ARMY

  • ARMY CORPS

  • NUMBERED AIR FORCE

  • NUMBERED FLEET

  • DOCUMENTS

  • CAMPAIGN PLAN

  • OPORD

OPERATIONAL

GUIDANCE

COMMANDER

OPERATIONAL

VISION

COMMANDER’S

ESTIMATE OF THE

OPERATIONAL SITUATION

STAFF

ESTIMATES

  • THE DECISION

    • THE DECISION STATEMENT

    • OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

    • COMMANDER’S INTENT

PLAN FOR A MAJOR

OPERATION (LAND,

NAVAL, AIR/SPACE)

PPT-97VEGO15 (PFR)


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OPERATIONAL DESIGN LEVELS OF WAR


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GUIDANCE LEVELS OF WAR

STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

OBJECTIVE

IDEA

(SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIRED

END STATE

DIRECTION/AXIS

IDENTIFICATION OF

THE ENEMY’S

CRITICAL FACTORS

98-PPT-VEGO-03(

es

)



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OPERATIONAL LEVELS OF WAR

IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

MAJOR

OPERATION

CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL

IDEA

TACTICAL

CONCEPTS

MAJOR LAND

OPERATION

MAJOR NAVAL

OPERATION

MARITIME

ELEMENTS

AIR (SPACE)

ELEMENTS

MAJOR AIR

(SPACE)

OPERATION

SPECIAL

FORCES

ELEMENTS

GROUND

ELEMENTS

PPT-96VEG017 (PFR)


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OPERATIONAL IDEA FEATURES LEVELS OF WAR

FULL USE

OF DECEPTION

CREATIVE

AND NOVEL

OPERATIONAL

IDEA

NO

DISCERNIBLE

PATTERNS

SPEED IN

EXECUTION

FULL USE

OF AMBIGUITY

MULTIPLE

OPTIONS

PPT-96VEG021


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OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A CAMPAIGN LEVELS OF WAR

(IN GENERIC TERMS)

DESIRED END STATE *

INTERIOR VS. EXTERIOR

GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION

OPERATIONAL

DESIGN

REQUIRED FORCES

AND ASSETS

STRATEGIC OR OPERATIONAL

DIRECTION / AXIS

IDENTIFICATION OF THE

ENEMY’S CRITICAL

FACTORS AND STRATEGIC

CENTER OF GRAVITY

  • ULTIMATE (STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE

  • INTERMEDIATE (OPERATIONAL)

  • OBJECTIVES

OPERATIONAL

FACTORS

COORDINATION

RECONSTITUTION

METHODS FOR

DEFEATING THE ENEMY

SELECTED

PRINCIPLES OF WAR

BRANCHES AND SEQUELS

OPERATIONAL PHASING

OPERATIONAL IDEA

(SCHEME)

APPLICATION OF

MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY

SOURCES OF POWER

OPERATIONAL PAUSE

ANTICIPATING ONE’S OWN

STRATEGIC CULMINATION

POINT

SECTOR OF MAIN

EFFORT (THRUST)

CONCENTRATION IN THE

SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT

(THRUST)

OPERATIONAL TEMPO

STRATEGIC AND

OPERATIONAL

DECEPTION

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM

POINT OF MAIN ATTACK

(DEFENSE)

PROTECTION OF ONE’S

OWN STRATEGIC COG

OPERATIONAL

MANEUVER **

STRATEGIC AND

OPERATIONAL RESERVES

* FOR A CAMPAIGN THAT ENDS HOSTILITIES

** FOR EACH MAJOR OPERATION IN A CAMPAIGN

STRATEGIC AND

OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT


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OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A LEVELS OF WARMAJOR OPERATION

INTERIOR VS.EXTERIOR

LINES

DESIRED END STATE *

OPERATIONAL

DESIGN

OPERATIONAL OR TACTICAL

DIRECTION / AXIS

REQUIRED FORCES

AND ASSETS

IDENTIFICATION OF THE

ENEMY’S CRITICAL

FACTORS AND OPERATIONAL

CENTER OFGRAVITY

  • ULTIMATE (OPERATIONAL)

  • OBJECTIVE

  • INTERMEDIATE (MAJOR

  • TACTICAL) OBJECTIVES

COORDINATION *

OPERATIONAL

FACTORS

REGENERATION OF

COMBAT POTENTIAL

BRANCHES AND SEQUELS

METHODS OF

DEFEATING THE ENEMY’S

OPERATIONAL COG

SELECTED

PRINCIPLES OF WAR

OPERATIONAL PHASING

OPERATIONAL IDEA

(SCHEME)

APPLICATION OF

AVAILABLE COMBAT

POTENTIAL

OPERATIONAL PAUSE

ANTICIPATING ONE’S OWN

CULMINATION POINT

SECTOR OF MAIN

EFFORT (THRUST)

CONCENTRATION AT SECTOR

OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST)

OPERATIONAL TEMPO

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM

OPERATIONAL

DECEPTION

POINT OF MAIN ATTACK

(DEFENSE)

PROTECTION OF ONE’S

OWN OPERATIONAL COG

OPERATIONAL

MANEUVER

OPERATIONAL RESERVE

OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT

* FOR A MAJOR OPERATION PLANNED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE.


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OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP LEVELS OF WAR


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OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP LEVELS OF WAR

ARMY CORPS

COMMANDERS

??

THEATER-

STRATEGIC

COMMANDERS

OPERATIONAL

LEADERSHIP

THEATER/

NUMBERED

AIR FORCE

COMMANDERS

THEATER OF

OPERATIONS

COMMANDERS

THEATER/

NUMBERED

ARMY

COMMANDERS

SERVICE

COMPONNENT

COMMANDERS

THEATER/

NUMBERED

FLEET

COMMANDERS

MILITARY/NAVAL

DISTRICT

COMMANDERS

JOINT TASK

FORCE

COMMANDERS

PPT-97VEGO53


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OPERATIONAL COMMANDER’S REQUIREMENTS LEVELS OF WAR

PROFESSIONAL

KNOWLEDGE

OPERATIONAL

THINKING

HONESTY

INITIATIVE

DECISIVENESS

STEADFASTNESS

OF PURPOSE

MORAL

COURAGE

REQUIREMENTS

FOR SUCCESS

LEADING BY

PERSONAL

EXAMPLE

SOUND

JUDGMENT

TOUGHNESS

CREATIVENESS

BOLDNESS

HIGH INTELLECT

MENTAL

AGILITY

PERSISTENCE

ABILITY TO PROVIDE

MOTIVATION AND

INSTILL PURPOSE

PPT-97VEGO54B


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TENETS OF OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP LEVELS OF WAR

INDIRECT

APPROACH

ABSOLUTE PRIMACY OF

POLICY & STRATEGY

UNWAVERING FOCUS ON THE

OBJECTIVE

APPLICATION OF

OVERWHELMING

FORCE

BALANCING THE ENDS,

MEANS, AND WAYS

TENETS

(CARDINAL

RULES)

SELECTION OF

THE PROPER

“WEIGHT OF EFFORT”

CONCENTRATION

AT THE “WEIGHT OF

EFFORT”

OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING

FREEDOM OF ACTION

INITIATIVE

JOINTNESS

EMPLOYMENT OF ALL

AVAILABLE MILITARY

AND NON-MILITARY

SOURCES OF POWER

WILLINGNESS TO

TAKE HIGH RISKS

ACTING IN AN

UNPREDICTABLE

MANNER

PPT-97VEGO41 (PFR)


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OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING FREEDOM OF ACTION LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONAL

COMMANDER

INITIATIVE

  • TASK-ORIENTED ORDERS

  • MENTAL AGILITY

  • FORCES’ MOBILITY

  • SURPRISE

  • OFFENSIVE

  • ANTICIPATION

  • ABILITY TO DEPLOY

  • OPERATIONAL RESERVES

  • ETC.

FACTORS AFFECTING FREEDOM OF ACTION

  • ASSIGNED OBJECTIVES/TASKS

  • COMBAT POWER OF ONE’S OWN / FRIENDLY FORCES

  • ENEMY’S COMBAT POWER

  • ENEMY’S DECISIONS AND ACTIONS

  • COMMAND & CONTROL STRUCTURE

  • COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

  • DECISION CYCLE

  • INTELLIGENCE

  • GIVEN SPACE

  • TIME AVAILABLE

  • FORCES AVAILABLE

  • FORCES BECOMING AVAILABLE

  • TECHNOLOGY

  • OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS AND SUSTAINMENT

  • OPERATIONAL PROTECTION

  • OPERATIONAL RESERVE

PPT-97VEGO42 (PR)


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TYPE OF DECISIONS LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONAL

COMMANDER

ORGANIZATIONAL

INFORMATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

PPT-97VEGO52


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THE FUTURE LEVELS OF WAR


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  • WARS WILL BE WON OR LOST AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVEL; HENCE, THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF OPERATIONAL ART WILL NOT BE REDUCED

  • INFORMATION WILL INCREASINGLY AFFECT THE FACTORS OF SPACE, TIME AND FORCE

  • NEW TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES WILL COMPRESS SPACE AND TIME SEPARATING LEVELS OF WAR

  • HOWEVER, THE NEED FOR THE OPERATIONAL LEVELS OF COMMAND WILL REMAIN.


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  • NEW METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT WILL EMERGE LEVEL; HENCE, THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF OPERATIONAL ART WILL NOT BE REDUCED

  • STRIKES WILL REPLACE BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS, WHILE MAJOR OPERATIONS WILL BECOME THE MAIN METHOD OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT TO ACCOMPLISH NOT ONLY OPERATIONAL BUT ALSO STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.


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