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Hearing. Chapter 12 Nannette Mentzer. Hearing. Defining Sound The Hearing System Hearing Loss Identification of Hearing Loss Hearing Screening and Testing Degrees of Hearing Loss Treatment of Middle Ear Disease Treatment of Hearing Loss Early Intervention Amplification

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Hearing l.jpg

Hearing

Chapter 12

Nannette Mentzer


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Hearing

  • Defining Sound

  • The Hearing System

  • Hearing Loss

  • Identification of Hearing Loss

  • Hearing Screening and Testing

  • Degrees of Hearing Loss

  • Treatment of Middle Ear Disease

  • Treatment of Hearing Loss

  • Early Intervention

  • Amplification

  • Communication and Education


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When we hear sound we are interpreting a pattern of vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.


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The Hearing System vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

The ear is divided into a peripheral auditory mechanism, which starts at the outer ear and ends at the auditory nerve. The central auditory system extends the auditory nerve to the brain. The defect in the peripheral system would indicate a hearing loss.


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The peripheral auditory system vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

External

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Auricle and the ear canal

Middle Ear

Ear canal, eardrum (tympanic membrane), stapes, malleus, and incus (the ossicles), Eustachian tube, the oval window,

Inner Ear

The vestibular system and the cochlea


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Hearing Loss vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Conductive

Dysfunction of the middle or external ear

Sensorineural

dysfunction of the auditory nerve or the cochlea

Mixed hearing loss

there are conductive and sensorineural components to the hearing loss


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Causes vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

  • Injury in utero, perinatal or after birth

  • prenatal and postnatal infections

  • anoxia

  • prematurity

  • exposure to ototoxic agents (antibiotics)

  • ear infections (conductive HL)


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Genetic disorders associated with hearing loss vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Treacher Collins Syndrome

Waardenburg Syndrome

Laurence-Moon-Beidi Syndrome

Usher Syndrome

CHARGE Syndrome

Down Syndrome

Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18

Cleft Palate


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Indications of Hearing Loss vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Not making reduplicated sounds

Not babbling

A baby does not awaken by loud noises

Not following a verbal direction

Not localizing


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Which infants get screened for a hearing loss? vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

According to the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing the “risk” factors are:

family history

infections such as rubella and syphilis

bacterial meningitis

congenital malformations of the head and neck

prematurity

anoxia

hyperbilirubinemia requiring exchange transfusions


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Hearing Tests vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Formal hearing tests tell whether there is a hearing loss, differentiate between conductive and sensorineural losses, determine the degree of the loss, estimate how speech speech sounds can be discriminated


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Early Intervention vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Children need to be linked up with an interdisciplinary, comprehensive early intervention program.


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Amplification vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Children should be aided with a hearing aid that works best for them. Assistive listening devices should be explored as well as the hearing aid when the child is included in the classroom.


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Surgery vibrating air molecules referred to as frequency. This frequency of sound is perceived as pitch and is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The more cycles the higher the frequency.

Cochlear implants should be considered for children that do not benefit from amplification.


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