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Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility Among Fathers. Cassandra Logan Jennifer Manlove Erum Ikramullah Emily Holcombe. **Support for this research provided by NICHD**. Research Questions.

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Factors associated with multiple partner fertility among fathers l.jpg

Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility Among Fathers

Cassandra Logan

Jennifer Manlove

Erum Ikramullah

Emily Holcombe

**Support for this research provided by NICHD**


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Research Questions Fathers

  • Are family and individual socio-demographic factors associated with multiple-partner fertility among males?

    2. Are characteristics of men’s first birth and first partner associated with their likelihood of experiencing multiple-partner fertility?


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Research Questions Fathers

3. Do family, individual, and first birth characteristics differentiate men who experience multiple-partner fertility in only nonmarital relationships from those who experience multiple-partner fertility in at least one marital relationship?


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Multiple-Partner Fertility: Definition and Context Fathers

  • Multiple-partner fertility is defined as having biological children with more than one partner

  • Resulting from demographic shifts in marriage patterns


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Motivations for the Study Fathers

  • Little is known about multiple-partner fertility among fathers

  • Multiple-partner fertility is problematic for men and their partners

  • Multiple-partner fertility has potentially negative consequences for children


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Conceptual Framework Fathers

Individual Characteristics

Multiple-Partner Fertility

Characteristics of First Birth

Family Background


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Data Fathers

  • National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (NSFG2002)

    • Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of males and females aged 15-44 in 2002

  • Analytic Sample

    • 1,731 men who reported at least one biological child

    • 316 men who reported fathering children with more than one woman

    • Females not included because births not linked to relationship histories


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Methods Fathers

  • Descriptive and bivariate analyses

  • Logistic regression

    • DV: Multiple-partner fertility vs. Single-partner fertility

  • Multinomial logistic regression

    • DV: Three-level multiple-partner fertility variable by marital status

      • Nonmarital only multiple-partner fertility

      • Multiple-partner fertility with at least one marital birth

      • Single-partner fertility


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Eight Percent of All Men Aged 15-44 in 2002 Have Had Children With Multiple Partners

1 Birth

2+ Births,

Single-Partner

Fertility

No Births

2+ Births,

Multiple-Partner Fertility


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1 Children With Multiple Partnersst Dependent Variable: Multiple-Partner Fertility vs. Single-Partner Fertility

Multiple-Partner Fertility

N=316

Single-Partner Fertility

N=1,415


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Multiple-Partner Fertility Occurs Within Marital and Nonmarital Unions

Marital Only

Nonmarital Only

Marital 1st Birth and

>1 Nonmarital Birth

Nonmarital 1st Birth

and > 1 Marital Birth


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2 Nonmarital Unionsnd Dependent Variable: Multiple-Partner Fertility by Marital Status

MPF With At Least 1 Marital Birth

N=188

Nonmarital Only

N=128

Single-Partner Fertility

N=1,415




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Independent Variables Fertility Varies By Cohort

Individual characteristics:

  • Age

  • Race/ethnicity

  • Foreign born status

  • Age at first sex

    Family background characteristics:

  • Respondents’ parents’ marital status at birth

  • Family structure at age 14

  • Number of siblings

  • Mother’s labor force status when R was aged 5-15

  • Parent education

  • Mother was a teen mom


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Independent Variables Fertility Varies By Cohort

Characteristics of first birth:

  • Age at birth

  • Whether R was married, cohabiting, or neither with the mother

  • Number of children with first mother


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Results Fertility Varies By Cohort


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Research Question #1: Fertility Varies By CohortAre family and individual socio-demographic factors associated with multiple-partner fertility among males?


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Bivariate Results Fertility Varies By Cohort

Men with multiple-partner fertility:

  • In their 40s

  • African-American

  • Born into “other” family structure

  • Large number of siblings

  • Mom worked full time

  • Mom had a first teen birth


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Multivariate Analyses: Fertility Varies By CohortPredictors of Multiple-Partner Fertility with Individual and Family Characteristics Controls


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Research Question #2: Fertility Varies By CohortAre characteristics of men’s first birth and first partner associated with their likelihood of experiencing multiple-partner fertility?



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Multivariate Analyses: Age at Birth of First ChildPredictors of Multiple-Partner Fertility with all Controls


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Research Question #3: Age at Birth of First ChildDo family, individual, and first birth characteristics differentiate men who experience multiple-partner fertility in only nonmarital relationships from those who experience multiple-partner fertility in at least one marital relationship?


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Bivariate Results Age at Birth of First Child

Men with nonmarital only multiple-partner

fertility:

  • Younger

  • African-American or Hispanic

  • Born to unmarried parents

  • Mom worked full time

  • Young age at 1st sex


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Multivariate Analyses: Age at Birth of First ChildNonmarital Multiple-Partner Fertility vs. Multiple-Partner Fertility with at Least 1 Marital Birth



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Limitations of Current Study Single-Partner Fertility

  • Recall bias: men may under-report fertility information

  • Small sample size does not allow us to differentiate marital-only multiple-partner fertility


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Summary of Findings Single-Partner Fertility

  • 8% of males and 18% of fathers experience multiple-partner fertility

  • One in four births are to men who have had children with multiple partners

  • Multiple-partner fertility occurs to men with varied relationship histories


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Summary of Findings Single-Partner Fertility

  • Socio-demographic factors are associated with multiple-partner fertility (age, race/ethnicity, family structure)

  • Racial and ethnic minorities and men who had their first birth at a younger age have the greatest odds of nonmarital multiple-partner fertility


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Summary of Findings Single-Partner Fertility

  • Early sexual experience is associated with multiple-partner fertility

  • Programs effective at delaying early sex and childbearing may help to reduce multiple-partner fertility


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Summary of Findings Single-Partner Fertility

  • Timing and circumstances of first birth is linked to multiple-partner fertility

  • Programs effective at helping men to delay first births and fostering healthy marriage when they do have children may help reduce multiple-partner fertility


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Forthcoming Research Brief Single-Partner Fertility


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www.childtrends.org Single-Partner Fertility

www.childtrendsdatabank.org


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