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L. Jesse Rouse Dept of Geology and Geography West Virginia University Committee: Trevor Harris, Chair Gary Lock Ken Martis Jennifer Miller Briane Turley.

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L. Jesse Rouse

Dept of Geology and Geography

West Virginia University

Committee: Trevor Harris, Chair

Gary Lock

Ken Martis

Jennifer Miller

Briane Turley

Experiential Landscape Archaeology:modeling structured landscape perspectives through geospatial technologies and Higuchi-style indices


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Directions and ideas

  • Space to place

  • Phenomenology

    • GIS exogenous

    • Experience

  • Higuchi (Harris, LaKose and Rouse, 2005)

  • Formalizing the structure of experience

2


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Landscape Archaeology

  • Cultural Landscapes

  • Landscape studies/histories

  • Landscape Archaeology in the UK

  • Spatial Science and Positivist Archaeology

  • Post-positivist backlash

  • GIS and Landscape Archaeology

  • Phenomenology

3


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Tilley’s Experience of Landscape

  • Tilley (1994)

    • Phenomenology of Landscape

    • link between the individual and the landscape

  • Based on the Phenomenology of Heidegger

    • Filtered through Tuan

    • Personal, visual perspective of the landscape

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Evolution of phenomenology

  • Critique of phenomenology in LA

    • Difficult to capture personal experience

    • Lack of replicability

    • Individualistic

  • Phenomenological approaches

    • Husserl - lebensweldt or “lifeworld”

    • Heiddeger - dasein or “being in the world”

    • Merleau-Ponty

  • Tilley (2004) The Materiality of Stone

5


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Geospatial Technologies

  • Spatial Science

  • GIS and Archaeology

    • 1990s

    • Mapping, recording, predictive modeling

  • Geographic Information Science

    • GIS informed by theory

    • Social critique

    • Integrating new types of data and representation

6


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Sensual GIS

  • Gillings and Goodrick (1996) looked at moving GIS beyond the flat 2D map

    • Make the experience interactive

    • Take full advantage of the senses

      • Sight, sound, touch, and smell

  • Primarily based on the representation of information

  • Visual can play an important role in modeling

7


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Holistic landscape assessment

based on human physiology and psycho-physical approach

how people perceive and view landscapes

viewshed elements based on human physiology and landscape aesthetics

Tadahiko Higuchi

Optimum

Angle of

elevation

Optimum

Angle of

depression

8


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Traditional line-of-sight viewshed analysis

0-2m

2-5m

15-150m

150-1km

>1km

20%

40%

10%

10%

20%

Time spent on viewing distances

Hull and Stewart (1995)

9


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Nine indices:

Line of sight

Depth of invisibility

Distance zones

Angle of incidence

Angle of depression

Angle of Elevation

Light

Depth and texture gradient

Temporal

Composite index

Hi - Higuchi Indices

Higuchi, 1986

10


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Example Higuchi analysis

  • Laura LaKose, 2004

    • Utilized ideas from Higuchi to consider the landscape architecture of a rural area in WV

    • Focus is on the impact of an existing power plant on the landscape

    • Modeled Higuchi indices using COTS software

11


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GAP LULC

30-meter Landsat

- 26 categories

SSURGO

GIS model

vegetation

10m DEM


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Intervisibility

Depth and

Texture

Short

Distance

Viewshed

Light

analysis

Mid-

Distance

Viewshed

Depth

of invisibility

Long

Distance

Viewshed

Angle of

depression


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Composite Analysis

Reds – poor viewshed qualities

Beige – viewshed quality

Green – good to exceptional

landscape quality


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Converging ideas

  • Phenomenological approach to landscape archaeology

  • GIS and landscape archaelogy

  • Physical and physiological perspective captured through Higuchi indices

  • Linking ideas and information in order to consider prehistoric cultural landscapes

15


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Dissertation Goal

  • To develop a structured experiential and phenomenological approach to prehistoric landscapes through the linkage of Higuchi and archaeological indices utilizing geospatial technologies.

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Objective 1

  • Review the literature on:

    • existing ideologies and methodologies used to explore landscape archaeology

    • geospatial technologies in archaeology, especially at the landscape scale

    • phenomenology in archaeology, and

    • Higuchi viewsheds.

17


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Objective 2

  • Develop the conceptual model to link phenomenology, geospatial technologies and landscape archaeology:

    • Adapt, amend, and add to Higuchi’s nine viewshed indices to create an archaeological model to support a structured experiential approach to prehistoric landscapes

    • Insert archaeological specific indices based on taskscapes, resourcescapes, and symbology, and

    • tie phenomenological research to the spatial frameworks of Geography and landscape archaeology.

18


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Objective 3

  • Develop GIS-supported Higuchi-based indices to study prehistoric landscapes by:

    • embedding existing Higuchi indices within GIS to take advantage of geospatial technologies

    • establishing archaeological indices that blends spatial assessment with interpretations of prehistoric life experience, and

    • coupling the GIS model results with personal and expert experience to interpret a given landscape that links egocentric and geocentric landscape perspectives.

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Objective 4

  • Implement the developed indices through a case study based on an archaeological landscape by:

    • Utilizing archaeological and physiologically derived information

    • Conducting field visit(s) to test the ‘fit’ of the model obtained through implementing the indices in a GIS, and

    • Assessing how quantitative indices differ from expert/personal experience.

20


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Objective 5

  • Evaluate the use of structured indices to support an experiential landscape archaeology to:

    • understand the role and importance of visual and experiential forms of interpretation based on insights gained from case studies,

    • determine how well the indices support a phenomenological approach to understanding past cultural landscapes,

    • determine future research avenues for structured indices in prehistoric archaeological landscape analysis.

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Methods

  • Build on cognitive, physiological and physical landscape

  • Generalize visual landscape qualities

  • GIS data analysis

  • Dynamic factors - plumes, clouds, mist, smoke

  • Link Higuchi to phenomenological approach

    • A structured landscape analysis

22


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Ha - archaeology indices

  • Resourcescapes (Trufkovic, ND)

  • Taskscapes (Ingold, 1993)

    • Sustenance

    • Shelter

    • Community

    • Travel/movement

  • Sacred space

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Hai – enhanced indices

  • Blend human physiology and culture to better understand human interaction with landscape

    • Viewshed

    • Perception

    • Biological necessity

    • Cultural interaction

    • Cosmology

24


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Index perspectives

  • Egocentric perspective (Hi)

    • Based on the experience of now

      • Takes into account memory to support the interpretation of current location

    • Personal perspective

      • Requires a personal experience of the current location only

  • Geocentric perspective (Ha)

    • Based on memory/knowledge

      • Builds beyond current location by utilizing knowledge of area beyond current view to link view with the larger landscape

    • Model perspective

      • Requires a personal experience of the location and an understanding beyond the current view

  • Hai

25


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Existing attempts have focused on the egocentric

Building a shared experience of the landscape

Structured approach

Phenomenology, Higucghi, and GIS

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Hai – proposed indices

  • Line of sight

  • Depth of invisibility

  • Distance zones

  • Angle of incidence, depression, and elevation

  • Light

  • Depth and texture gradient

  • Distance to water

  • Food acquisition

  • Material acquisition

  • Natural shelter

27



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Expected findings

  • Build on existing attempts to integrate Higuchi into a GIS environment

  • Adapt Higuchi indexes and build additional indexes to better capture cultural landscapes

  • Merger of phenomenological experiences of landscape with structured indices and GIS

30


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Timeline

  • One year project duration

  • Dec – Feb

    • Literature review and data acquisition

  • Feb – March

    • Create detailed indices and plan field visits

  • March – July

    • Field visits and data capture

  • Jan – Nov

    • Chapters as relevant work is completed

    • Revisions and editing as necessary

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