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Egypt
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Egypt. World History Core. Geography/Interaction with the Environment. Location West of the Fertile Crescent Africa Along the Nile River Nile Floods yearly Flows NORTH (due to the elevation of the highlands in Eastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea) Longest river (4100 miles).

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Egypt

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Egypt l.jpg

Egypt

World History Core


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Geography/Interaction with the Environment

  • Location

    • West of the Fertile Crescent

    • Africa

    • Along the Nile River

  • Nile

    • Floods yearly

    • Flows NORTH (due to the elevation of the highlands in Eastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea)

    • Longest river (4100 miles)


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Geography/Interaction with the Environment

  • “Gift of the Nile”

    • 5th c. Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt

  • Predictable Floods

    • Snows melted in highland which led to the water flooding the Nile River region (every year around the same time)

    • Too Much WATER: ruin homes and granaries

    • Not Enough WATER: poor crops and starvation


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Geography/Interaction with the Environment

  • Deserts isolate and protect

    • Small area of arable land

    • Also provides protection from invaders

  • Upper and Lower Egypt

SOUTH

Higher Elevation

NORTH

Lower Elevation


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Geography/Interaction with the Environment

  • Delta

    • 100 miles from the Mediterranean Sea

    • Broad, marshy, Δ area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a river


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Power and Authority

  • Narmer

    • United Upper and Lower Egypt

      • Combined the crowns of each to make one unified crown

  • Pharaohs

    • God-King

      • Most powerful being

  • Theocracy

    • Government based on religious authority


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Power and Authority

  • Social Classes

Kings, Queens, Royal Family

Upper Class: landowners, gov’t officials, priest, commanders

Middle Class: merchants, artisans

Lower Class: peasants and laborers


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Power and Authority

  • Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt

    • Old

      • 2660 – 2180 BC

    • Middle

      • 2040 – 1640 BC

    • New

      • 1570 – 1075 BC


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Religious and Ethnical Systems

  • Polytheistic

    • Belief in more than one God

  • Re

    • Sun God

  • Osiris

    • God of the Dead

  • Isis

    • Goddess, represents ideal mother and wife


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Religious and Ethnical Systems

  • Ka

    • Eternal life force

  • Afterlife

    • A continuing life after death

    • Anubis: God and guide of underworld

      • Judged deeds of people after they died

        • Weighed the heart, it had to be no heavier than a feather to pass through the gates


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Religious and Ethnical Systems

  • Mummification

    • A method of preserving bodies

    • Embalming/drying of corpus

      • Prevents decaying

  • Book of the Dead

    • Scrolls of hymns/prayers for the afterlife to help guide the soul after death

  • Pyramids

    • Elaborate tombs

    • Filled with items people would need for afterlife

    • Made of granite and limestone

    • Each stone 2.5 tons


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Religious and Ethnical Systems

  • King Tut

    • Tutankhamen

    • New Kingdom Pharaoh

      • Reign began at the age of 9

    • Made transition from Aten (monotheistic religion) back to original, polytheistic religion

    • One of the only intact tombs in the Valley of the Kings


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Cultural Interaction/Economics/Empire Building

  • Old Kingdom

    • Led by pharaohs, 2660 – 2180 BC

    • Limited Trade: due to geography

  • Middle Kingdom

    • 2040 – 1640 BC

    • Canal: built canal from Nile to Red Sea

      • Gave way to trade and transportation

  • Hyksos

    • “Rulers from a Foreign Land”=Palestine

    • Ruled Egypt from 1630 – 1075 BC


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Cultural Interaction/Economics/Empire Building

  • New Kingdom

    • 1570 – 1075 BC

    • GOAL: strengthen empire

      • Hatshepsut

        • Woman pharaoh

        • Encourage trade instead of war

      • Thutmose III

        • Son of Hatshepsut

        • Eastward expansion to Palestine and Syria

      • Ramses II

        • Defended kingdom from Hittites

          • Hittites: from Palestine and Syria, Egypt had expanded to their area = bringing them to Egypt


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Revolution

  • Amenhotep becomes Ikhnaton

    • Changes name to Ikhnaton

    • Tries to get Egypt to worship Aten (sun) only making Egypt monothestic

  • Hatshepsut becomes first female Pharaoh

    • Husband dies and his son is not worthy for throne because his mother was a “lesser”

    • Hatshepsut took over as Queen


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Science and Technology

  • Hieroglyphics

    • Picture form of writing

      • Rosetta Stone

    • Papyrus

      • Reeds split and placed close together, wet and dried together

  • Calendar

    • Track flooding and planting

    • 365 days/12 months/30 days each/5 feast days


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Science and Technology

  • Mathematics

    • # system developed for tax and geometry purposes

  • Architecture

    • Sphinx

      • Old Kingdom, located in Giza

      • Considered guardians

      • ½ human ½ lion

    • Valley of the Kings

      • New Kingdom Pharaoh tombs

  • Medicine

    • Discovered pulse

    • Set bones

    • Surgery


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