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Dealing with Academic Dishonesty. John Petraitis Department of Psychology. Forms of Academic Dishonesty. Cheating on exams Wandering eyes Crib notes (inside water bottles) Purloined copies of the exam PDA’s, picture phones, flash drives Deception on papers Plagiarism Bogus citations

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Dealing with Academic Dishonesty

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Dealing with academic dishonesty l.jpg

Dealing with Academic Dishonesty

John Petraitis

Department of Psychology


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Forms of Academic Dishonesty

  • Cheating on exams

    • Wandering eyes

    • Crib notes (inside water bottles)

    • Purloined copies of the exam

    • PDA’s, picture phones, flash drives

  • Deception on papers

    • Plagiarism

    • Bogus citations

  • “My Grandma died”


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    Statistics

    • 74% of students admitted that at least once during the past school year they had engaged in "serious" cheating (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarizing from off-line published material (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 54% of students admitted to plagiarizing from on-line materials (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 58% of HS students let someone copy their work in 1969,

    • 98% of HS students let someone copy their work in 1989(http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 90% of students believe that cheaters are never caught (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 47% of students believe their teachers sometimes choose to ignore students who are cheating (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)

    • 55% of faculty "would not be willing to devote any real effort to documenting suspected incidents of student cheating” (http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism_stats.html)


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    Statistics

    • Illusion of invulnerability

      • Feeling somehow less vulnerable than others


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    How to Deter Cheating in General

    • Address it on Day 1 and in the syllabus

      • PSY 111 SYLLABUS…

        • Although you may consult with other students about assignments in this class, you must complete all assignments on your own. Handing in work that is based even partially on the work of other students constitutes academic misconduct and will be reported to the Dean of Students for disciplinary action. Similarly, providing your work to other students for their use also constitutes academic misconduct and might lead to disciplinary action.


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    How to Deter Cheating in General

    • Address it on Day 1 and in the syllabus

      • PSY 375 SYLLABUS…

        • A note about plagiarism is called for. I routinely check for plagiarism by checking journals and books, “paper mills” and papers from past students. I have zero tolerance for it. I look for it and I am good at finding it. If I find or even suspect plagiarized material, the paper will be, without exception, forwarded to the Dean of Students – someone who can attest that I have a long history of reporting cases of plagiarism.


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    How to Deter Exam Cheating

    • Use written exams instead of multiple choice

    • If multiple-choice…

      • Use alternate versions (same Q’s, dif. order)

      • Assign a bogus number (e.g., row number) “to check for “statistical similarities in error patterns” via “Cheat-1” and “Cheat-2” programs

      • Allow “notes page” or open-book

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    How to Deter Plagiarism

    • Clarify the distinctions between plagiarism, paraphrasing, and direct citation.

      • Provide students with instances of correct and incorrect ways to use others' ideas and words.

        • You might want to seek permission to distribute the following example from The Random House Handbook, 6th ed., by Frederick Crews (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992, pp. 181-183):

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    How to Deter Plagiarism

    • Source:The joker in the European pack was Italy. For a time hopes were entertained of her as a force against Germany, but these disappeared under Mussolini. In 1935 Italy made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. It was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations for one of its members to attack another. France and Great Britain, as great powers, Mediterranean powers, and African colonial powers, were bound to take the lead against Italy at the league. But they did so feebly and half-heartedly because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany. The result was the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all. (J. M. Roberts, History of the World (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 845.)

    • Version A:Italy, one might say, was the joker in the European deck. When she invaded Ethiopia, it was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations; yet the efforts of England and France to take the lead against her were feeble and half-hearted. It appears that those great powers had no wish to alienate a possible ally against Hitler's rearmed Germany.

    • Comment:Clearly plagiarism. Though the facts cited are public knowledge, the stolen phrases aren't. Note that the writer's interweaving of his own words with the source's does not render him innocent of plagiarism..

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    How to Deter Plagiarism

    • Source:The joker in the European pack was Italy. For a time hopes were entertained of her as a force against Germany, but these disappeared under Mussolini. In 1935 Italy made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. It was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations for one of its members to attack another. France and Great Britain, as great powers, Mediterranean powers, and African colonial powers, were bound to take the lead against Italy at the league. But they did so feebly and half-heartedly because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany. The result was the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all. (J. M. Roberts, History of the World (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 845.)

    • Version B:Italy was the joker in the European deck. Under Mussolini in 1935, she made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. As J. M. Roberts points out, this violated the covenant of the League of Nations. ( J. M. Roberts, History of the World (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 845.) But France and Britain, not wanting to alienate a possible ally against Germany, put up only feeble and half-hearted opposition to the Ethiopian adventure. The outcome, as Roberts observes, was "the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all." (Roberts, p. 845.)

    • Comment:Still plagiarism. The two correct citations of Roberts serve as a kind of alibi for the appropriating of other, unacknowledged phrases. But the alibi has no force: some of Roberts' words are again being presented as the writer's.

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    How to Deter Plagiarism

    • Source:The joker in the European pack was Italy. For a time hopes were entertained of her as a force against Germany, but these disappeared under Mussolini. In 1935 Italy made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. It was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations for one of its members to attack another. France and Great Britain, as great powers, Mediterranean powers, and African colonial powers, were bound to take the lead against Italy at the league. But they did so feebly and half-heartedly because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany. The result was the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all. (J. M. Roberts, History of the World (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 845.)

    • Version C:Much has been written about German rearmament and militarism in the period 1933-1939. But Germany's dominance in Europe was by no means a foregone conclusion. The fact is that the balance of power might have been tipped against Hitler if one or two things had turned out differently. Take Italy's gravitation toward an alliance with Germany, for example. That alliance seemed so very far from inevitable that Britain and France actually muted their criticism of the Ethiopian invasion in the hope of remaining friends with Italy. They opposed the Italians in the League of Nations, as J. M. Roberts observes, "feebly and half-heartedly because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany." (J. M. Roberts, History of the World (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 845.) Suppose Italy, France, and Britain had retained a certain common interest. Would Hitler have been able to get away with his remarkable bluffing and bullying in the later thirties?

    • Comment:Noplagiarism. The writer has been influenced by the public facts mentioned by Roberts, but he hasn't tried to pass off Roberts' conclusions as his own. The one clear borrowing is properly acknowledged.

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    How to Deter Plagiarism

    • Place limits on topic selection. Avoid topics that are too general; this decreases the likelihood of using a "paper mill."

    • Establish precise format for paper and stick to it. ..\..\Courses\Psy 375\Grading Sheet for the Course Paper.doc

    • Require…

      • a tentative bibliography early in the term.

      • library location numbers.

      • an advance outline of the paper.

      • notes and rough drafts.

      • “marked” copies of references.

    • Do not permit late topic changes.

    • Change the assignment frequently.

    • Require two copies, one of which will be kept on file.

    • Require a digital copy that…

      • “can be submitted to a plagiarism detection service”

      • “can be sent to the Dean of Students”

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    If you suspect plagiarized material on a paper…

    • Check…

      • File

        • Properties

          • Summary

            • Author and Company

          • Statistics

            • Created date

            • Modified date

            • # revisions

            • Total editing time

      • Warning: changing a file name changes the file properties


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    If you suspect any type of dishonesty…

    • Confront the student directly and immediately.

      • If you have qualms or hesitations, talk with an experienced colleague or chair before you meet with the student.

      • Consult Dean of Students for guidelines and due process procedures.

      • When you meet with the student, objectively explain the problem as you see it, avoiding the use of words like “cheating” or “plagiarism.”

      • Project an air of concern for the student as an individual, but communicate the seriousness of the situation.

      • Listen to the student's explanation.

      • If a student denies any wrongdoing, question him or her about specific aspects of, say, the paper by asking for definitions of terms, interpretations, or restatements.

      • Be prepared for pleas, excuses, and tales of hardship and extenuating circumstances.

      • If a student is distraught or upset, suggest a referral to the counseling center, if appropriate.

      • Explain what will happen next to the student.

      • Take whatever official action your institution prescribes for handling student academic dishonesty.

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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    If you suspect any type of dishonesty…

    • Report your suspicions to the Dean of Students Office

      • You don’t need a smoking gun

      • Do NOT render a verdict and penalty yourself

      • Be consistent…

        • Students fly under the radar

        • Avoid claims of bias

    http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/prevent.html


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