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CS 271 (Computer Architecture) Chapter 1: Introduction. CS 271 Computer Architecture Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne. Introduction to computer architecture. Basic concept “Hardware and software are logically equivalent”

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Cs 271 computer architecture chapter 1 introduction l.jpg

CS 271 (Computer Architecture)Chapter 1: Introduction

CS 271 Computer Architecture

Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne


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Introduction to computer architecture

  • Basic concept

    • “Hardware and software are logically equivalent”

  • Any operation executed by some computer hardware can also be simulated in software

  • Any operation performed by software can be built directly into the hardware of a computer system

    • Note: hardware implementation might be very complicated or costly


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Hardware computer system

  • Very fast

  • Typically has an instruction set consisting of simple operations

    • MOV

    • ADD

    • BZ

    • etc.

  • Machine language for the instruction set

    • Tedious to program

    • Programs consist of a sequence of bits


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Virtual machine

  • Call raw computer hardware M0 and the instruction set L0

  • A “virtual machine” is a hypothetical computer M1 whose machine language is L1

    • More human oriented

    • May be too expensive or complicated to actually build directly in hardware

    • If so, L1 programs can still be written for M1

    • However, such programs cannot be directly executed on M1


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Translation

  • Translation makes L1 programs practical for computer systems that are too expensive to actually build in hardware

  • Any program written in L1 must . . .

    • either be “translated” to the L0 language prior to execution on M0

    • or be “interpreted” by software written in L0 and running on M0


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Translation

  • Translation is done by a compiler

    • A complier is an L0 program running on M0 that translates the L1 program to L0

    • The compiler output later runs on M0

  • Interpreter

    • An interpreter is an L0 program running on M0

    • The interpreter translates and executes the L1 program instruction-by-instruction


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Computer system

  • Layers of virtual machines stacked on raw hardware

  • Each virtual machine . . .

    • provides an instruction set

    • is translated to or interpreted by lower layers


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Contemporary multilevel machine

  • Typical virtual machine levels

    • High-level-language (HLL) machine level

    • Assembly language machine level

    • Operating system machine level

    • Instruction set architecture (ISA) level

    • Microarchitecture level

    • Digital logic level

  • The digital logic level is hardware with transistors, wires, power supply, etc.


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Evolution of multilevel machines

  • Three level architecture

    • ISA level

    • Microprogram level

    • Digital logic level

  • Concept due to Maurice Wilkes (1951, Cambridge)

  • Microprogram level

    • Interprets ISA instructions using the digital logic level

    • Very small instruction set

    • Easier to construct than ISA level

    • Built-in, unchangeable


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Evolution of multilevel machines

  • Operating system level

    • Adds instructions and features to the ISA level

      • I/O instructions

      • System macros

      • Supervisor calls

      • Etc.

    • Added instructions are interpreted by the ISA level

    • ISA instructions are executed directly

      (interpreted by the microprogram level)


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Evolution of multilevel machines

  • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)

    • Golden age for microprogram level - 1960s and 1970s

    • Increasingly sophisticated microprogram level evolved

    • Instructions for floating point, procedure call/return, etc.

    • Execution became slower

  • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)

    • Eliminates the microprogram layer

    • Small instruction set is directly executed

    • Increased execution speed, but at a price

    • Remove Inconvenient Stuff to the Compiler


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Milestones in computer architecture


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Computer generations

0th 1642 – 1945Mechanical

1st 1945 – 1955Vacuum tubes

2nd 1955 – 1965Transistors

3rd 1965 – 1980Integrated circuits

4th 1980 -VLSI, personal computers

5th 1970s -Invisible computers


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Moore’s Law

  • The number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months

    • Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) – 1965

    • Not a law of nature

    • Just an empirical observation

  • Exponential growth at the rate of 60% per year

  • Moore’s law has held from the 1960s until the present

  • Increase from 103 to 108 transistors per chip


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Moore’s Law


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Spectrum of computers


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Examples of computer architectures

We will refer to these examples throughout the semester


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Intel computer family


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Intel computer family

Moore’s law for (Intel) CPU chips.


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MCS-51 family

Members of the MCS-51 family.


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Metric units

The principal metric prefixes.


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