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Cross-Cultural Leadership. Lauren Gruchala. Kaci Grant. Overview. Culture Defined Related Concepts Hofstede & others GLOBE Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes Challenges to Cross-Cultural Leadership Questions Sources.

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Cross cultural leadership l.jpg

Cross-Cultural Leadership

Lauren Gruchala

Kaci Grant


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Culture Defined

  • Related Concepts

  • Hofstede & others

  • GLOBE

  • Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes

  • Challenges to Cross-Cultural Leadership

  • Questions

  • Sources


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  • The Dutch place emphasis on egalitarianism and are skeptical about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Arabs worship their leaders- as long as they are in power!

  • Iranians seek power and strength in the leaders.

  • The Malaysian leader is expected to behave in a manner that is humble, modest, and dignified.


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Why is this important? about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Globalization

  • Increased interconnection between people

  • Need for leaders to become competent in cross-cultural awareness and practice

  • Diversity in our country


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Cross-Cultural Research Endeavor about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Leadership research is tricky:

    • No consistency agreed upon definition of leadership

    • No clear understanding of the boundaries of the construct space


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Culture Defined about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • The learned beliefs, values, rules, norms, symbols, and traditions that are common to a group of people (Northouse)

  • A set of patterns for social collectivities that differentiates among them in meaningful ways (House, Wright & Aditya)


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Essential Parameters of Culture about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Culture represents some form and degree of collective agreement

  • Culture refers to sharing of important interpretations of entities, activities, and events

  • Cultural norms and cultural forces are manifested linguistically, behaviorally, and symbolically in the form of artifacts

  • Common member experiences are inherent in the notion of culture

  • Cultural variables take on the force of social influence largely because members of collectivities identify with an agreed-upon specific set of values and common social identities


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Essential Parameters of Culture about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Common experiences and agreed-upon norms have powerful socialization effects on the members of cultures

  • Cultural interpretations, symbols, artifacts, and effects are transmitted across generations

  • The social influence of cultural forces is assumed to provide a set of compelling behavioral, affective, and attitudinal orientations for members of cultures

  • Members of specific cultures are presumed to abide by a set of norms that reflect the above-mentioned commonalities


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Related Concepts about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Ethnocentrism: the tendency for individuals to place their own group at the center of their observations of others and the world

    • Obstacle because it prevents people from fully understanding or respecting the world of others

  • Prejudice: a largely fixed attitude, belief, or emotion held by an individual about another individual or group that is based on faulty data

  • Both can have an impact on how leaders influence others.


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Related Concepts about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Multicultural: an approach or system that takes more than one culture into account; a set of subcultures defined by race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age

  • Diversity: the existence of different cultures or ethnicities within a group or organization

  • Monolithic cultures: provide approximately common experiences for members of collectivities (no variation)

  • Pluralist cultures: contains two or more subgroups that share some common experiences but not others


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Cross-Cultural Studies about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Haire, Ghiselli and Porter (1966)

    • Studied responses from 3,641 managers from 14 countries

    • Managers favored democratic styles of management; consistently felt that subordinates lacked necessary abilities to be led democratically; most endorsed egalitarian organizational structures, however saw themselves as part of elite group; better to direct than persuade


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Cross-Cultural Studies about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Bass, Burger, Doktor & Barrett (1979)

    • Based on multiple measures of observed behavior and questionnaire responses of 8,566 middle managers from 12 different countries

    • Data collected between 1966 and 1973

    • Strong main effects of national citizenship and modest main effects of rate of advancement on many of the dependent variables (i.e., managers’ responses to questionnaires, self-reports of behavior in exercises, observations of each other’s behavior)

  • Table 20.1 (Earley & Erez)


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Hofstede (1980,2001) about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Most referenced research concerning dimensions of culture

  • Based on questionnaires from 100,000 people in more than 50 countries (IBM HQ Staff)

  • Cultural differences primarily encountered as differences in shared values

  • Values defined as “ broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others”


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Hofstede’s 3 Core Questions about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Three core questions that have to be addressed in all cross-cultural research:

    • What are we comparing?

    • Are nations suitable units for comparison?

    • Are the phenomena we look at functionally equivalent?


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Hofstede Dimensions about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Power Distance

    • The degree to which less powerful members of a society accept a hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in organizations/society

  • Uncertainty Avoidance

    • The degree to which members of a given society feel uncomfortable in ambiguous situations and have created beliefs, norms, and institutions that are intended to minimize the occurrence of or cope with such situations

  • Long-term-Short-term Orientation

    • Long-term- thrift and perseverance

    • Short-term- respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, protecting one’s “face”


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Hofstede Dimensions about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Individualism-Collectivism

    • Individualist- the degree to which individuals function independently of each other and are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families

    • Collectivist- the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups that are expected to look after these individuals in exchange for loyalty to the group

  • Masculinity-Femininity

    • High scores- the degree to which members of cultural entities look favorably on assertive, aggressive, competitive, and materialist behavior and striving for success

    • Low scores- the degree to which members value supportive behavior, nurturance, care, and service and endorse gender role differentiation and discrimination


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US Hofstede Profile about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

Power Distance: 40

Individualism: 91

Masculinity: 62

Uncertainty Avoidance Index: 46

Long-term Orientation: 29


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Hofstede Conclusions about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Gives us insights into other cultures so that we can be more effective when interacting with people in other countries

  • 3 noted studies have failed to demonstrate consistency with Hofstede’s dimensions

    • Gerstner and Day (1994); Ng et al. (1982); Chinese Culture Connection (1987)


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G about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.LOBE

  • Global Leadership & Organizational Behavior Effectiveness

    • Robert House (1991)

    • Purpose: Increase understanding of cross-cultural interactions and the impact of culture on leadership effectiveness

    • Quantitative methodology

      • Responses of 17,000 managers; 950 organizations; 62 cultures

    • 9 cultural dimensions – 7 derived from Hofstede


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G about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.LOBE

  • For each of the nine dimensions, items were developed at both the societal and organizational level

  • 2 measures were used for all 9 dimensions:

    • Items phrased in terms of the society or organization as they are

    • Items phrased to evaluate what practices should be enacted in the society or organization


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Uncertainty Avoidance: Extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on established norms, rituals, and procedures to avoid uncertainty

    • Uncertainty accepting societies have been found to be more innovative

    • Mangers from high UA countries tend to be more controlling, less delegating, and less approachable

    • High UA value career stability, formal rules, & the development of expertise

    • Low UA value career mobility and general skills rather than specialized skills

    • Low UA managers expect resourcefulness & improvisation

    • High UA managers expect reliability & punctuality


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

2. Power Distance: Degree to which members of group expect & agree that power should be shared unequally

  • Participative leadership significantly predicted by the degree of PD

    • Germanic, Anglo, & Nordic Europeans attuned to PL

    • Middle Eastern, East European, Confucian Asian, & Southern Asian clusters do not endorse


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

3. Institutional Collectivism: Degree to which organization or society encourages institutional or societal collective action

4. In-Group Collectivism: Degree to which people express pride, loyalty, & cohesiveness in their organizations or families


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

5. Gender Egalitarianism: Degree to which an organization or society minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality

  • High GE countries endorse charismatic leader attributes & participative leader attributes:

    • Foresight, enthusiasm, & self-sacrifice

    • Delegation

      6. Assertiveness: Degree to which people in a culture are determined, assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their social relationships


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

7. Future Orientation: Extent to which people engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification

8. Performance Orientation: Extent to which and organization or society encourages and rewards group members for improved performance and excellence


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Dimensions of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

9. Humane Orientation: Degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others

  • 9 dimensions used to analyze attributes of 62 different countries


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Clusters of World Cultures about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • 62 Countries divided into regional clusters

  • Clusters determined by:

    • Common language

    • Geography

    • Religion

    • Historical Accounts

  • 10 distinct clusters formed


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Characteristics of Clusters about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.


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Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Derived in part from Lord and Maher (1991)- implicit leadership theory

    • Individuals have implicit beliefs & convictions about the attributes and beliefs that distinguish leaders from non-leaders and effective leaders from ineffective leaders

      • Leadership is in the eye of the beholder- what people see in others when they are exhibiting leadership behaviors

  • GLOBE researchers identified 6 global leadership behaviors


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Global Leadership Behaviors about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Charismatic/value-based leadership: Ability to inspire, motivate, and expect high performance from others based on strongly held core values

    • Visionary

    • Inspirational

    • Self-sacrificing

    • Trustworthy

    • Decisive

    • Performance oriented


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Global Leadership Behaviors about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

2. Team-oriented leadership: Emphasizes team building and a common purpose among team members

  • Collaborative

  • Integrative

  • Diplomatic

  • Administratively competent


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Global Leadership Behaviors about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

3. Participative leadership: The degree to which leaders involve others in making and implementing decisions

  • Participative

  • Nonautocratic

    4. Human oriented leadership: Emphasizes being supportive, considerate, compassionate, & generous

  • Modesty

  • Sensitivity to people


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Global Leadership Behaviors about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

5. Autonomous leadership: Refers to independent and individualistic leadership

  • Autonomous

  • Unique

    6. Self-protective leadership: Reflects behaviors that ensure the safety & security of the leader & and the group

  • Self-centered

  • Status conscious

  • Conflict inducing

  • Face saving


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Universally Desirable Leadership Attributes about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.


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Universally Undesirable Leadership Attributes about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.


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Strengths of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

  • Only study to analyze how leadership viewed by cultures around the world

  • Large Scope

  • Well-developed quantitative research design

    • Standardized instruments = generalizeable

  • Cultural dimensions more expansive than Hofstede

  • Provide information about what is universally accepted as “good” & “bad” leadership

  • Expand our knowledge to view leadership outside our perspectives


  • Criticisms of globe l.jpg
    Criticisms of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

    • No clear set of assumptions & propositions to form a single theory about the way culture relates to leadership or influences the leadership process

    • Some cultural dimensions and leaderships behaviors are vague (e.g. power distance, self-protective leadership)

    • Implicit leadership theory- ignores research that frames leadership in terms of what people do (e.g. transformational leadership)


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    Application of GLOBE about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

    • Help leaders understand their own cultural biases & preferences

    • Help leaders understand what it means to be a good leader

    • Help leaders communicate more effectively across cultural and geographic boundaries

    • Practical Ways:

      • Culturally sensitive websites

      • Design new employee orientation programs

      • Improve global team effectiveness


    Future of cross cultural leadership l.jpg
    Future of Cross-Cultural Leadership about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

    • Internet has made it easier to obtain samples & answer questions quickly

      • Web-based surveys

      • Real time chat

      • Video Conferencing

    • Blessing & a curse

      • Unqualified individuals try to collect & interpret data


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    Unresolved Issues/ Limitations about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

    • Magnitude of the effect of cultural influences unknown

    • The influence of cultural forces on local conceptions of leadership, the social status of leaders, and the amount of influence granted to leaders

    • Processes by which cultural entities affect member psychological states and behavior not clear

    • Convenience sampling

    • Valid information in interviews, self-report measures, etc.


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    Questions?? about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.


    Sources l.jpg
    Sources about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates.

    • Dickson, M.W., Den Hartog, D.N., & Mitchelson, J.K. (2003). Research on leadership in a cross –cultural context: making progress, and raising new questions. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 729-768.

    • Earley, P.C. & Erez, M. (1996). Understanding the International Leader, pp. 535-625.

    • Hofstede, G. (2009). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions.Retrieved April 12, 2009, from itim International Web site: http://www.geert- hofstede.com/

    • Northouse, P.G. (2007). Leadership Theory and Practice, 4th Edition, pp. 301-325.


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