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Candace S. Bos Memorial Lecture Series. University of Texas September 16, 2002. “A doctor can bury his mistakes, but an architect can only advise his client to plant vines.” Frank Lloyd Wright. “What matters most in the work that we do?”. C LOSING THE P ERFORMANCE G AP.

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Candace S. BosMemorial Lecture Series

University of Texas

September 16, 2002


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“A doctor can bury his mistakes, but an architect can only advise his client to plant vines.”

Frank Lloyd Wright


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“What matters most in the work that we do?”


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CLOSINGTHE PERFORMANCE GAP


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The Performance Gap

Demands/

Skills

Years in School


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Inclusive Education

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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Focus of Presentation

  • Actions that lead to the biggest improvements in student outcomes

    > Validated practices implemented with fidelity

    > Coordinated programming across teachers and sites

    > Quality professional development

    > Strong administrative leadership


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Inclusive Education

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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What’s Should be at the Core?

  • Vision

  • Efficacy/Beliefs

  • Validated instructional practices

  • Administrative Leadership


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Vision


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Efficacy/Beliefs


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Validated instructional practices


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Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard (2000)

  • Interventions that benefit SLD also benefit average and high achievers

  • Instruction that is visible & explicit

  • Instruction that is interactive between students & teacher & between students

  • Instruction that controls of task difficulty

  • Strategies that guide student learning


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Small steps

Probes

Feedback

Diagrams/pictures

Independent practice

Clear Explanations

Teacher models

Reminders to use strategies

Step-by-step prompts

Review the learning process

Direct Instruction

Strategy Instruction

Swanson (1999)


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Responsive Instruction

  • Continuous Assessment

  • Instructional Accommodations

  • Elaborated Feedback


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Systematic Instruction

  • Structured

  • Connected

  • Scaffolded

  • Informative


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Intensive Instruction

  • Sufficient Time

  • High Engagement


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My, how time can slip away!!

  • 10 minutes lost/block (4 blocks/day)

    • 40 minutes lost/day

    • 200 minutes (3.3 hours) of lost/week

    • 105 hours/year or about

      17 days!!!


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Inclusive Education

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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.

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

All students learn critical content

required in the core curriculum

regardless of literacy levels.

Teachers compensate for limited literacy levels by using explicit teaching routines, adaptations, and technology to promote content mastery.

all

most

some

For example: The Unit Organizer Routine


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Content Enhancement Teaching Routines

Planning and

Leading Learning

Course Organizer

Unit Organizer

lesson Organizer

Teaching Concepts

Concept Mastery Routine

Concept Anchoring Routine

Concept Comparison Routine

Explaining

Text, Topics, and Details

Framing Routine

Survey Routine

Clarifying Routine

Increasing Performance

Quality Assignment Routine

Question Exploration Routine

Recall Enhancement Routine


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Concept Diagram

CONCEPT DIAGRAM

Vertebrate

1

3

Key Words

Mammal

3

CONVEY CONCEPT

2

1

2

OFFER OVERALL

CONCEPT

elephant

3

NOTE KEY WORDS

Always Present

Sometimes Present

Never Present

4

CLASSIFY

CHARACTERISTICS:

O

cold-blooded

warm-blooded

+

walks on 2 legs

human

walks on 4 legs

+

nurse their young

swims in water

has hair

+

warm-blooded

can fly

nurse their

moves on the ground

young

5

Examples:

EXPLORE EXAMPLES

Nonexamples:

whale

human

snake

bird

elephant

alligator

shark

duckbill

shark

whale

platypus

walks on

4 legs

bat

bird

can fly

6

PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE

cold-blooded

A mammal is a warm-blooded vertebrate that has hair and nurses its young.

7

TIE DOWN

A DEFINITION


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Concept Mastery Results

Test scores of students with disabilities on unit tests


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Teachers embed selected learning strategies in

core curriculum courses through direct explanation,

modeling, and required application in content

assignments.

For example: Teachers teach the steps of a

paraphrasing strategy (RAP), regularly model its

use, and then embed paraphrasing

activities in course activities through the year to

create a culture of “reading to retell.”


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“It’s strange that we expect students to learn, yet spend so little time teaching them about learning!”

Norman, 1980


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“In times of change learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists!”

Eric Hoffer


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Embedded Strategy Instruction


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Large Group InstructionI Do It!

  • Review the steps of the strategy

  • Explain how it will help them learn

  • Specify what they need to do

  • Think out loud

  • Problem solve

  • Attack the challenge in different ways

  • Address errors from previous day’s work


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Large Group InstructionWe Do It!

  • Ask for strategy steps

  • Ask students to explain how they’re thinking

  • Shape student responses

  • Encourage students with authentic praise

  • Evaluate student understanding

  • Re-instruct if necessary


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Large Group InstructionYou Do it!

  • Let students perform independently

  • Give brief, specific, constructive feedback

  • Identify categories of error to identify the focus for the next day’s session

  • Have students record their grade on a progress chart


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Learning Strategies Curriculum

Expression of Competence

Sentences

Paragraphs

Error Monitoring

Themes

Assignment Completion

Test-Taking

Acquisition

Word Identification

Paraphrasing

Self-Questioning

Visual Imagery

Interpreting Visuals

Multipass

Storage

First-Letter Mnemonic

Paired Associates

Listening/Notetaking

LINCS Vocabulary


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Self-Questioning Strategy

  • Attend to clues as you read

  • Say some questions

  • Keep predictions in mind

  • Identify the answer

  • Talk about the answers


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Self-Questioning-2001 n= 133

7th Grade Science Class: Growth Scores


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State Writing Assessment


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

.

Students who have difficulty mastering the strategies

presented in courses by content teachers are provided more

instruction in the strategies through specialized, more

intensive instruction delivered by support personnel.

For example: When core curriculum teachers notice students

having difficulty learning and using strategies such as

paraphrasing they work with support personnel to provide

more intensive instruction.


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Intensive Strategy Instruction


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Eight Stage Instructional Process

1. Pretest and Make Commitments

2. Describe

3. Model

4. Verbal Practice

5. Controlled Practice

6. Advanced Practice

7. Posttest and Make Commitments

8. Generalization

Daily instruction for 6 to 8 weeks in each strategy.


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Pre-test

Describe

Model

Verbal Elaboration

Controlled Practice

Grade-appropriate practice

Post-test

Generalization

Small-Group Instruction


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Word Identification

  • Discover the context

  • Isolate the prefix

  • Separate the suffix

  • Say the stem

  • Examine the stem

  • Check with someone

  • Try the dictionary


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 4: Develop more intensive course options

for those who need it.

Students learn literacy skills and strategies through specialized,

direct, and intensive instruction in listening, speaking, reading,

and writing through carefully designed and delivered courses.

For example: Courses in researched-based reading

Programs such as the SRA Corrective Reading Program

are created for students.


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options

for those who need it.

Students with underlying language disorders learn the linguistic,

metalinguistic, and metacognitive underpinnings they need to

acquire content literacy skills and strategies.

For example: Speech and language pathologists work with

students whose language disorders to teach the language

skills needed to acquire critical literacy skills and strategies.


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The Speech-Language Pathologist Provides Curriculum-Relevant Therapy

Curriculum-relevant therapy is a kind of intervention that engages adolescents in meaningful, relevant, results oriented work, leading to academic success.

Practice Principles:

Intervention provided by the SLP should be therapeutic, or clinical, in nature.

Intervention should relate directly to what students have to learn in school.


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What is Strategic Tutoring?

  • Usually one-to-one instruction

  • With a highly skilled instructor

  • Who assesses, constructs, weaves, and plans for transfer using

  • Strategies for learning how to learn

  • While helping youth complete class assignments


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StudentStrategyKnowledge“Tell me everything you do when you......”

Pre Strategic Tutoring

Post Strategic Tutoring

  • Andre’: Math Strategy

  • Dec. 7, 1998

  • First, I have a separate folder for math assignments.

  • I read the problem aloud.

  • I underline information

  • Compare to other

  • problems(look at example

  • in the book).

  • Make up a guess

  • Solve parts of the problem.

  • Check my work

  • Andre’: Math Strategy

  • Oct. 13, 1998

  • I take notes from the

  • overhead.

  • I use the notes if I don’t

  • remember.


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Student Strategy Knowledge

Pre Strategic Tutoring

Post Strategic Tutoring

  • Andre’: Organizational Strategy Dec. 7, 1998

  • Use a notebook and

  • separate folder for each

  • subject.

  • The tutor checks my weekly/

  • daily planner.

  • Use a grid for the planner

  • and put sports stickers for

  • each daily schedule that was

  • complete.

  • I look at the board each

  • class for notes written by the

  • teacher.

  • Copy the dates and

  • assignments from the board

  • and due dates.

  • Andre’: Organizational Strategy

  • Nov 2, 1998

  • Put my papers for class in each

  • textbook(science assignment in

  • science text).

  • overhead.

  • Also put papers in bottom of

  • backpack.


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Summary of Key Ideas Related to Content literacy

  • The purpose of literacy is to increase the learning of critical information.

  • Content literacy requires fluent decoding.

  • Common strategies are taught and reinforced by all teachers.

  • Responsive and systematic instruction is provided on a continuum of intensity.

  • Students must master critical content regardless of literacy competence.


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What Can the Content Literacy Continuum Do for Schools?


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The Performance Gap

Demands/

Skills

Years in School


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Promotes focus on

Content:

Rigorous academic

standards


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Helps professionals differentiate complementary roles.


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Focuses on change at the school level.


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Addresses, national, state, and district priorities in literacy.


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ADOLESCENT

You want me to do what?

LITERACY

?


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Inclusive Education

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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Administrative Leadership


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Administrative Leadership

  • Ensure right conditions are in place for student success

  • Create a professional culture of “calling,” high expectation, and success


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Student Success

Validated practices

+

Fidelity implementation

+

=

Coordinated implementation

+

Quality Professional Development

+

Strong Administrative Leadership


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“What matters most in the work that we do?”


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The answer to that question will impact the degree to which the “performance gap” is closed.


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