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Advertising March 9, 2010. Defining political advertising. 1) ability to control the message 2) use of mass communication channels for message distribution. The Place of Campaign Advertising. Mass media. Mass public. Politicians.

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Advertising march 9 2010 l.jpg

AdvertisingMarch 9, 2010


Defining political advertising l.jpg
Defining political advertising

1) ability to control the message

2) use of mass communication channels for message distribution


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The Place of Campaign Advertising

Mass media

Mass public

Politicians



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Types of Ads “campaign environment”

  • Negative, positive, contrast

  • Issue vs. image

  • Humour


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards


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Recent Billboards in Britain “campaign environment”


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Classic Billboards in British Elections “campaign environment”


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling

  • Games


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling

  • Games


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling

  • Games

  • Infomercials


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling

  • Games

  • Infomercials

  • Web (ie. Obama Girl)


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Forms of Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Television

  • Radio

  • Print

  • Direct mail

  • Billboards

  • Push polling

  • Games

  • Infomercials

  • Web


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Trends in UK Advertising (PEBs) “campaign environment”

Early ads (1959)

Modern ads from 2005 (Labour and Conservative)


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Trends in UK Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Slicker

  • Shorter

  • More negative

  • More focus on leaders


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Landmarks in US Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Early elections

  • Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956

  • The Johnson campaign of 1964

  • Morning in America and the Bear in 1984

  • Willie Horton and 1988

  • Soft money and advertising in the 1990s

  • Rats ad (2000)

  • ‘Stand by your ad’ since 2004

  • Ads from 2008, Obama infomerical , Palin


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Trends in US Advertising “campaign environment”

  • Slicker

  • Shorter

  • More negative


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Intended Effects of Ads “campaign environment”

  • Learning

    • Candidates’ identities

    • Policy positions

    • Personal and political history

  • Impressions

    • Favorability

    • Traits

    • Electability

  • Agenda setting and priming


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What are the Intended Effects of Political Advertising? “campaign environment”

  • Persuasion

  • Reinforcement


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Intended Effects in UK Elections “campaign environment”

  • Backlash effect of negative advertising, especially on non-partisans

  • Stronger impact on Lib Dem support

  • Some effects on party leader images

  • Little impact on party images

  • Limited effects on policy perceptions


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Intended Effects in US Elections “campaign environment”

  • Learning

    • Candidates’ identities

    • Policy positions

    • Personal and political history


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Why Go Negative? “campaign environment”


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Ad Tone in US Presidential Elections (1960-2000) “campaign environment”

More negative

More positive

Source: John Geer (2003)


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Unintended Effects of Negative Ads “campaign environment”

  • Turnout and negative advertising

WHY MIGHT NEGATIVE ADVERTISING LOWER TURNOUT?

Perception that politicians are unresponsive

Cynicism

Negative ads

Less positive public mood


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Unintended Effects of Negative Ads “campaign environment”

  • Turnout and negative advertising

WHY MIGHT NEGATIVE ADVERTISING LOWER TURNOUT?

Perception that politicians are unresponsive

Cynicism

Negative ads

Lower turnout

Less positive public mood


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Unintended Effects of Negative Ads “campaign environment”

  • Turnout and negative advertising

WHY MIGHT NEGATIVE ADVERTISING RAISE TURNOUT?

Information

Anxiety

Negative ads

Stakes


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Unintended Effects of Negative Ads “campaign environment”

  • Turnout and negative advertising

WHY MIGHT NEGATIVE ADVERTISING RAISE TURNOUT?

Information

Anxiety

Negative ads

Higher turnout

Stakes


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Unintended Effects of Ads “campaign environment”

  • Perceptions of politics

  • Political behaviour


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United Kingdom: Turnout “campaign environment”



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