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The Majority of EMS Helicopter Accidents are Weather related resulting in CIFT. Weather Reports (AREA and TERMINAL) AWOS and ASOS Stations EMS HELICOPTERS 1000’ AREA FORCAST

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Ems helicopters l.jpg

The Majority of EMS Helicopter Accidents are Weather related resulting in CIFT.

Weather Reports (AREA and TERMINAL)

AWOS and ASOS Stations

EMS HELICOPTERS

1000’


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AREA FORCAST resulting in CIFT.

  • The US Weather Service and many private organizations report and forecast the weather. It is important for pilots and air traffic management personnel to know that a weather report or a weather map is history and a weather forecast is a computer-generated best guess. They must use all available weather data from real time to forecasts before and during the flight to make decisions that maintain safety in the skies. There are many sources of weather data, all of which are covered briefly below. For convenience they are categorized into printed reports and forecasts, graphic weather analyses and briefings and advisories. Not all are used all the time, but each provides valuable information. For short, local flights, a pilot may only need to be informed of general weather conditions. For extended or cross-country flights, a pilot will need more detailed information covering a greater area and perhaps at various altitudes.


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TERMINAL FORECAST resulting in CIFT.

  • Terminal Forecasts (FT) is one of the best sources for predicting what the weather at a particular airport (terminal) will be in the future. These forecast predictions cover an area within 5 nautical miles of the center of the runway field. FTs are usually issued 3 times a day and are valid for accuracy up to 24 hours. The first section of the FT covers the expected weather for the upcoming 18-hour period. This includes information about ceiling, visibility, vision obstructions, wind and expected weather changes at that facility.


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ASOS resulting in CIFT.

PARAMETER PROCESSING RADIUS

INTERVAL VALIDITY

(MINUTES) (MILES)

SKY CONDITIONS 30 3-5

VISIBILITY 10 2-3

PRECIPITATION 10 1-2

FREEZING RAIN 15 2-3

TEMP/DEW POINT 5 5

WIND 2 1-2

PRESSURE 1 5


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AWOS – (2,3) resulting in CIFT.

The Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) is a suite of sensors, which measure, collect and disseminate weather data to help meteorologists, pilots and flight dispatchers prepare and monitor weather forecasts, plan flight routes, and provide necessary information for correct takeoffs and landings. AWOSs provide a minute-to-minute update that is usually provided to pilots by a VHF radio on a frequency between 118 and 136 MHz. AWOSs are categorized as either Federal or NonFederal. Federal AWOSs were purchased and are currently maintained by the FAA. NonFederal AWOSs are purchased and maintained by state, local, and private organizations. The sensors measure weather parameters such as wind speed and direction, temperature and dew point, visibility, cloud heights and types, precipitation, and barometric pressure. The AWOS does not predict weather, but many send current information to weather offices where forecasts are produced using this information along with computer model outputs, satellite photos and radar images, to name a few. Every hour on the hour, the AWOS data is made available to off-site users by those AWOSs on Service A (long line telephone communication) or satellite uplink. The aviation community, which is one of the largest users of environmental data, is the major user of the AWOS information.


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AWOS (1,2,3) resulting in CIFT.

Every hour on the hour, the AWOS data is made available to off-site users by those AWOSs on Service A (long line telephone communication) or satellite uplink. The aviation community, which is one of the largest users of environmental data, is the major user of the AWOS information.

AWOS I: Wind Speed, Wind Gust, Wind Direction, Variable Wind Direction, Temperature, Dew Point, Altimeter Setting, Density Altitude AWOS II: Same as AWOS I + Visibility, and Variable Visibility AWOS III: Same as AWOS II + Sky Condition, Cloud Height and TypeAWOS III-P: Same as AWOS III + Present Weather, Precipitation Identification AWOS III-T: Same as AWOS III + Thunderstorm and Lightning Detection AWOS III-P-T: Same as AWOS III + Present Weather and Lightning Detection


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ALABAMA 24 resulting in CIFT.

ALASKA 90

ARKANSAS 25

ARIZONA 26

CALIFORNIA 93

COLORADO 28

CONN. 10

DELAWARE 03

FLORIDA 55

GEORGIA 42

HAWAII 07

IOWA 52

IDAHO 16

ILLINOIS 49

INDIANA 20

KANSAS 37

KENTUCKY 32

LOUISIANA 23

MASSACHUSETTS 19

MARYLAND 15

MAINE 15

MICHIGAN 52

MINNESOTA 83

MISSISSIPPI 22

MISSOURI 22

NEBRASKA 28

MONTANA 20

NEVADA 14

NEW HAMPSHIRE 10

NEW JERSEY 13

NEW MEXICO 21

NEW YORK 40

NORTH CAROLINA 52

NORTH DAKOTA 10

OHIO 44

OKLAHOMA 40

OREGON 28

PENNSYLVANIA 44

RHODE ISLAND 05

SOUTH CAROLINA 52

SOUTH DAKOTA 16

TENNESSEE 47

TEXAS 88

UTAH 15

VERMONT 06

VIRGINIA 37

WASHINGTON 31

WASHINGTON D.C. 02

WEST VIRGINIA 15

WYOMING 20

ASOS and AWOS Stations1598 FED and NON-FED LISTED



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COMMENT 1 resulting in CIFT.

  • MORE WEATHER STATIONS

  • MORE WEATHER STATIONS

  • MORE WEATHER STATIONS


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ENROUTE ALTITUDES AND ROUTES resulting in CIFT.

  • ROUTE WIDTHS (2NM)

  • AWOS MAP

  • AWOS ALTITUDE

  • AWOS CEILING (AGL)

  • PREPLANNED

  • NEW ROUTE


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RECOMMENDATIONS resulting in CIFT.

  • ALL AWOS STATIONS BE PLACED ON CLASS “A” SERVICE (LAND LINE, SATELLITE, OR WEB.

  • AWOS ALTITUDE INFORMATION BE GIVEN WITH OTHER READ-OUTS.

  • PLACEMENT OF AWOS SYSTEMS

  • ABILITY TO USE OTHER WEATHER SOURCES AS ADVISIORY INFORMATION.

  • TRAINING PROGRAM FOR EMS PILOTS ON WHAT WEATHER INFORMATION AND SOURCES ARE AVAILIABLE.

  • STANDARIZED TRAINING PROGRAM FOR EXEMPTION (6175).

  • TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR POI’s ON EMS WEATHER, EXEMPTIONS, LOW LEVEL ROUTES, VFR AND IFR PROCEEDURES.


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