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U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics and Trends. Peter W. French AVP- Safety & Performance Analysis Association of American Railroads January 17, 2006. Railroad Safety: Topics. Safety Statistics & Trends Train Safety (Train Accidents) Grade Crossing Safety Trespassers Passenger Safety

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U s railroad safety statistics and trends l.jpg

U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics and Trends

Peter W. French

AVP- Safety & Performance Analysis

Association of American Railroads

January 17, 2006


Railroad safety topics l.jpg
Railroad Safety: Topics

  • Safety Statistics & Trends

    • Train Safety (Train Accidents)

    • Grade Crossing Safety

    • Trespassers

    • Passenger Safety

    • Employee Safety

    • Hazardous Materials Safety


Railroad safety topics continued l.jpg
Railroad Safety: Topics (continued)

  • RR Initiatives to Improve Safety

  • Improvements in Technology

  • Safety Programs

  • Risk-Based Safety Performance Standards


U s railroad safety statistics main themes l.jpg
U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:Main Themes

  • Railroads have dramatically improved safety over the last two and a half decades.

  • Railroads compare favorably with other industries & transportation modes.

  • The most troubling railroad safety problems arise from factors largely outside railroad control.

  • Railroads have implemented numerous and effective technological improvements and company-wide safety programs.


U s railroad safety statistics l.jpg
U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:

In 2004, U.S. railroads achieved their safest year ever for the following measures:

  • Total Non-Fatal Injuries

  • Employee On-Duty Injuries & Injury Rates

  • Grade Crossing Collision Rates

  • Trespasser Fatalities and Injuries per Million Train Miles

Sources of Data: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 1-2.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1975-1996, Tables 1, 51.


U s railroad safety statistics6 l.jpg
U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:

Thru October 2005, U.S. railroads are again achieving their safest year ever for these same measures:

  • Total Non-Fatal Injuries: down 2.7% from 2004

  • Employee On-Duty Injuries & Injury Rates, down 10% and 14%, respectively from 2004

  • Grade Crossing Collision Rates: down 8%

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2005/r01.htm (preliminary 2005 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 1-2.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1975-1996, Tables 1, 51.


In 2004 94 of rail related fatalities were grade crossing users and trespassers l.jpg
In 2004, 94% of rail-related fatalities weregrade crossing users and trespassers.

Grade Crossing

Users: 364

Trespassers: 482

Employees: 25

Others: 24

Passengers: 3

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data).

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 1-3.


In 2004 66 of rail related injuries were incurred by employees on duty l.jpg
In 2004, 66% of rail-related injuries were incurred by employees on duty.

Grade Crossing

Users: 928

Trespassers:

402

Passengers: 636

Others: 1,034

Employees 5,938

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data).

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 1-3.


Train accidents per million train miles have dropped 62 since 1980 and 8 since 1990 l.jpg
Train accidents per million train-miles have dropped 62% since 1980 and 8% since 1990.

11.43

4.73

4.33

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data).

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 1-2.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.


Train collisions per million train miles have dropped 82 since 1980 and 40 since 1990 l.jpg
Train collisions per million train-miles have dropped 82% since 1980 and 40% since 1990.

1.67

0.52

0.31

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data).

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 5-6.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing collisions.


Slide11 l.jpg
Mainline train collisions per million train-miles on Class I freight railroads have dropped 84% since 1980 and 49% since 1990.

0.52

0.54

All Collisions: All RRs

0.31

Mainline & Sidings:

Class I Freight RRs

0.17

0.09

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm. AAR Analysis of FRA train

accident database through 2004. FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004,

Tables 1-1, 5-6; FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing collisions. Includes passenger train collisions on Class I freight railroads.


Derailments per million train miles have dropped 65 since 1980 and 12 since 1990 l.jpg
Derailments per million train-miles have dropped 65% since 1980 and 12% since 1990.

8.98

3.11

3.52

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 5-6.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.


Equipment caused accidents per million train miles have dropped 73 since 1980 and 21 since 1990 l.jpg
Equipment-caused accidents per million train-miles have dropped 73% since 1980 and 21% since 1990.

2.03

0.70

0.55

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 5-9.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.


Track caused accidents per million train miles have dropped 72 since 1980 and 17 since 1990 l.jpg
Track-caused accidents per million train-miles have dropped 72% since 1980 and 17% since 1990.

4.84

1.60

1.33

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 5-9.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.


Human factors caused accidents per million train miles have dropped 46 since 1980 and 3 since 1990 l.jpg
Human factors-caused accidents per million train-miles have dropped 46% since 1980 and 3% since 1990.

3.24

1.80

1.74

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 5-9.

FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.

Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.


Brake equipment related train accidents have dropped 82 since 1980 and 31 since 1990 l.jpg
Brake equipment-related train accidents have dropped 82% since 1980 and 31% since 1990.

187

34

49

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 5-9.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.

Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive brake defects.


Brake equipment related train accident rates have dropped 83 since 1980 and 45 since 1990 l.jpg
Brake equipment-related train accident rates have dropped 83% since 1980 and 45% since 1990.

Accidents per Million Train-Miles

0.26

0.08

0.04

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1, 5-9.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.

Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive brake defects.


Wheel equipment related train accident rates have dropped 74 since 1980 and 22 since 1990 l.jpg
Wheel equipment-related train accident rates have dropped 74% since 1980 and 22% since 1990.

Accidents per Million Train-Miles

0.411

0.105

0.135

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1, 5-9.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.

Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive wheel defects.


Axle and bearings related train accident rates have dropped 64 since 1980 and 25 since 1990 l.jpg
Axle and bearings-related train accident rates have dropped 64% since 1980 and 25% since 1990.

Accidents per Million Train-Miles

0.287

0.138

0.104

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1, 5-9.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.

Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive axle or bearing defects.


Truck component related train accident rates have dropped 77 since 1980 and 33 since 1990 l.jpg
Truck component-related train accident rates have dropped 77% since 1980 and 33% since 1990.

Accidents per Million Train-Miles

0.450

0.153

0.103

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1, 5-9.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.

Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive truck component defects.


Grade crossing collisions have declined 71 since 1980 and 46 since 1990 l.jpg
Grade crossing collisions have declined 71% since 1980 and 46% since 1990.

10,611

5,715

3,067

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1.

FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin,Table S,

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Includes accidents involving pedestrians. Includes accidents at private crossings.


Grade crossing fatalities have declined 56 since 1980 and 47 since 1990 l.jpg
Grade crossing fatalities have declined 56% since 1980 and 47% since 1990.

833

698

368

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 1-3.

FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin,Table S,

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and accidents at private crossings.


Grade crossing injuries have declined 72 since 1980 and 55 since 1990 l.jpg
Grade crossing injuries have declined 47% since 1990.72% since 1980 and 55% since 1990.

3,890

2,407

1,085

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 1-3.

FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin,Table S,

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and accidents at private crossings.


Grade crossing collision rates have declined 73 since 1980 and 58 since 1990 l.jpg
Grade crossing collision rates have declined 73% since 1980 and 58% since 1990.

Grade Crossing Collisions per Million Train-Miles

14.79

9.39

3.99

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 1-1.

FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin,Table S,

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Includes accidents involving pedestrians and accidents at private crossings.


Since 1980 public crossings have declined 31 while those with gates have doubled l.jpg
Since 1980, public crossings have declined 31% while those with gates have doubled.

31% Decrease

Passive 75%

Passive 57%

Lights 18%

Lights 17%

Gates 25%

Gates 8%

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 9-3.

FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980, Table 46.


Grade crossing warning device upgrades work gates cut the accident fatality rates by 93 l.jpg
Grade crossing warning device upgrades work. Gates cut the accident & fatality rates by 93%.

Grade Crossing Collisions per Billion Collision Opportunities

296

63

21

Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Grade Crossing Incident & Inventory Databases,

using 1999-2003 incident data and the December 2003 inventory data.

Note: Collision opportunities are measured here as the average number of trains per hour multiplied

by the average number of vehicles per hour moving over each crossing. It is useful primarily

as a measure of relative, not absolute, exposure, since the time period (hour) is arbitrary.


Grade crossing collisions are usually caused by motorist error l.jpg
Grade crossing collisions are usually caused by motorist error.

Stopped,

Proceeded

7%

Stopped on Tracks: 26%

Did Not Stop 49%

Other

6%

Drove Around

Gate: 12%

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 8-6.

AAR Analysis of Highway-Rail Incident Database for 2004.

Note: Motor vehicle highway-rail incidents at public crossings.


Trespasser fatalities continue to pose a significant safety problem l.jpg
Trespasser fatalities continue to pose a significant safety problem.

543

457

482

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-2, 10-3.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 13.

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.


But the trespasser fatality rate per million train miles is actually down slightly l.jpg
But the trespasser fatality rate per million train miles is actually down slightly.

0.89

0.64

0.63

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-2, 10-3.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 13.

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.


91 of trespasser fatalities in 2004 resulted from being struck by trains or freight cars l.jpg
91% of trespasser fatalities in 2004 resulted from being struck by trains or freight cars.

Train Accidents 2

Other 41

Struck by Train 439

Source: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 10-10.

AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2004.

Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.


Many trespassers are killed while intoxicated l.jpg
Many Trespassers are Killed While Intoxicated. struck by trains or freight cars.

  • A North Carolina study for the period 1990-1994 found that 78% of 128 trespassers killed on railroad property were intoxicated.

    • The median blood alcohol level for this group was 2.5 times the legal limit.

  • A 1994 South Carolina study of 24 train-related pedestrian fatalities found that 79% were intoxicated.

  • Toxicology results on 78 of 132 railroad trespassers killed in Georgia in the period 1990-1996 found 40 (51%) with alcohol levels above 100 mg/dL.

Sources: Andrew Pelletier, MD, "Deaths Among Railroad Trespassers: The Role of Alcohol in Fatal Injuries,”

Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 277, No. 13, April 2, 1997, pp. 1064-66.

Center for Disease Control, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 25, July 2, 1999.


Passengers are 15 to 20 times as likely to die on the highway as on a train l.jpg
Passengers are 15 to 20 times as likely to die on the highway as on a train.

Passenger Fatalities per Billion Passenger Miles

Highway

Railroads

Airlines

Sources: National Transportation Statistics, 1993, p. 52, 1996, p. 72; NTSB, Aviation Accident Data Base

FHWA, Highway Statistics 2003, Table VM-1. NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts 2004, Early Ed., Table 4, p. 18.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 13, 36; RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Tables 1-3, 2-9.

Excludes 232 airline passenger fatalities in the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Domestic flights only.


Railroads and airlines have comparable passenger fatality rates l.jpg
Railroads and airlines have comparable passenger fatality rates.

Passenger Fatalities per Billion Passenger Miles

Railroads

Airlines

Sources: National Transportation Statistics, 1993, p. 52, 1996, p. 72; NTSB, Aviation Accident Data Base

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 13, 36; RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Tables 1-3, 2-9.

Note: 1993 RR fatalities included 42 killed in one Amtrak accident caused by a barge hitting & misaligning

a RR bridge and another 6 killed by a gunman on the Long Island RR. Excludes 232 fatalities in 9/11 attacks.


Railroads have reduced employee casualty rates by 77 since 1980 and 66 since 1990 l.jpg
Railroads have reduced employee casualty rates by 77% since 1980 and 66% since 1990.

Total Casualties per 100 Full-Time Employees

11.16

7.59

2.60

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-2, 4-1.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13, 36.

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

Note: Casualties include fatalities as well as injuries and occupational illnesses.


Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do other major industry groups l.jpg
Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do other major industry groups.

Lost Workday Injuries & Illnesses per 100 Full Time Employees, 2004

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb1487.pdf


Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do other transportation modes l.jpg
Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do other transportation modes.

Lost Workday Injuries & Illnesses per 100 Full Time Employees, 2004

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb1487.pdf


Railroads have lower employee fatality rates than do most other transportation modes l.jpg
Railroads have lower employee fatality rates transportation modes.than do most other transportation modes.

Fatalities per 100,000 Full Time Employees, 2004

Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2004, Table 2;

And BLS Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages (QCEW) Program for number of employees.

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Tables 1-1 and 1-2.


Railroads have about the same injury severity as do other industries l.jpg
Railroads have about the same injury severity transportation modes.as do other industries.

Percent of Lost Workday Employee Injuries, 2003

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table R49. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses

involving days away from work by nature of injury and industry division, 2003. http://www.bls.gov/iif/

oshwc/osh/case/ostb1427.pdf . FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2003, Table 4-1.


Railroads have about the same injury severity as do other industries39 l.jpg
Railroads have about the same injury severity transportation modes.as do other industries.

Percent of Lost Workday Employee Injuries, 2003 (Sprains not shown)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table R49. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses

involving days away from work by nature of injury and industry division, 2003. http://www.bls.gov/iif/

oshwc/osh/case/ostb1427.pdf . FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2003, Table 4-1.


U s railroads have had lower employee injury rates than have most major european railroads l.jpg
U.S. railroads have had lower employee injury rates than have most major European railroads.

Lost Workday Injuries per 100 Employees

Spain

Italy

Belgium

Austria

France

Norway

BR

Germany

U.S.

Britain

Sweden

Sources: UIC, Statistics on Accidents at Work, 1993-2001. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 43, 45, 46.

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Reports, 1997-2001, Tables 4-1, 1-1. UIC discontinued these stats after 2001.

Notes: Excludes occupational illnesses. Excludes injuries with no days away from work. Includes fatal injuries.

Data for Sweden & Norway (1993-96) and for U.S. (all years) is per 200,000 hours actually worked, hence higher.


The safest u s rrs have had lower employee injury rates than have the safest european rrs l.jpg
The safest U.S. RRs have had lower employee injury rates than have the safest European RRs.

Lost Workday Injuries per 100 Employees

Norway

Sweden

BR

IC

CSX

UP

BNSF

NS

Sources: UIC, Statistics on Accidents at Work, 1993-2001. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 43, 45, 46.

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Reports, 1997-2001, Tables 4-1, 1-1. UIC discontinued these stats after 2001.

Notes: Excludes occupational illnesses. Excludes injuries with no days away from work. Includes fatal injuries.

Data for Sweden & Norway (1993-96) and for U.S. (all years) is per 200,000 hours actually worked, hence higher.


Train accidents and grade crossing collisions account for about 5 of employee injuries l.jpg
Train accidents and grade crossing collisions account for about 5% of employee injuries.

All Other Incidents 95.44%

Train Accidents 2.62%

Grade Crossing Collisions 1.94%

Source: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data)

See also FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2004, Table 1-3.


Railroads have reduced employee on duty fatalities by 74 since 1980 and 38 since 1990 l.jpg
Railroads have reduced employee on duty fatalities by 74% since 1980 and 38% since 1990.

97

40

25

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-2, 1-3, 4-2.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13.

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm (preliminary 2004 data)


Railroads employee fatality rates have fallen 24 since 1990 l.jpg
Railroads employee fatality rates have fallen 24% since 1990.

Employee On-Duty Fatalities per 100,000 Employees

14.5

10.9

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-1, 4-2.

FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13, 36.

FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2004/r03.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2004 data)


Slide45 l.jpg

Of 25 employee fatalities in 2004, 11 were due to being struck by moving on-track equipment and 8 were in train or grade crossing collisions.

Struck by

Road Train – 2

(“SOFA”)

Transportation,

Not in Train

Accident

Switching, Struck

By Cars (“SOFA”)- 9

Road Train

Collisions

- 6

Grade

Xing

Collision

- 2

Shop Accident - 1

Hwy Accident

- 1

Maintenance of

Equipment

Transportation:

Train Accident

Fell from Car - 1

Crushed by Track Car - 1

Maintenance of Way

Sources: News clippings and FRA, Monthly Reports on Employee Fatalities, 2004.

FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 1-2.


Hazmat incident release rates have declined 72 since 1980 and 58 since 1990 l.jpg
Hazmat incident release rates have declined 72% since 1980 and 58% since 1990.

Incidents per Thousand Hazmat Carloads

1.52

0.99

0.42

99.96% Incident Free

Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents

by Year & Mode. http://hazmat.dot.gov/files/hazmat/10year/10yearfrm.htm for 1995-2004.

Includes releases in train accidents as well as non-accident releases. ICC/STB Waybill Sample.

1995-2004. Carloadings adjusted to counter known hazmat underreportings of hazmat designations.


Hazmat accident rates have declined 89 since 1980 and 40 since 1990 l.jpg
Hazmat accident rates have declined 89% since 1980 and 40% since 1990.

Train Accidents with a Release per Thousand Hazmat Carloads

0.143

99.9974% of Carloads

are Accident Release Free

0.016

0.027

Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Table 6-1. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin,

Table 26. ICC/STB Waybill Sample. 1995-2004. Carloadings adjusted to counter known hazmat underreportings.

Note: An accident may involve releases from more than one car.


Accidents with a hazmat release have declined 76 since 1980 and 17 since 1990 l.jpg
Accidents with a hazmat release have declined 76% since 1980 and 17% since 1990.

Train Accidents with a Hazmat Release

119

29

35

Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2004, Tables 6-1. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin,

Table 26. Note: An accident may involve releases from more than one car.

AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2004.


Less than 1 of train accidents result in a release of hazardous materials l.jpg
Less than 1% of train accidents result in a release of hazardous materials.

No Hazmat Cars Present

2,725 76.6%

Hazmat Cars in

Consist 453 12.7%

Hazmat Cars

Derailed or

Damaged 352

9.9%

Hazmat Released 29 0.8%

Source: AAR Analysis of Year 2004 FRA Train Accident Database.

Note: Includes grade crossing train accidents meeting dollar threshold.


Rail freight transport incurs about 13 of the fatalities that trucks do per trillion ton miles l.jpg
Rail freight transport incurs about 13% of the fatalities that trucks do per trillion ton-miles.

3,762

3,300

680

422

Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2003, Table 1-4. Rail Ton-Miles in 2003 from

RR Facts, 2004 Ed., p. 32, Eno Foundation. USDOT, FMCSA, Large Truck Crash Facts, 2003, Table 13,

http://ai.volpe.dot.gov/CarrierResearchResults/PDFs/LargeTruckCrashfacts2003.pdf (p. 19)

Tractor-trailer net ton-miles in 2002 estimated at 1.14 trillion from 2002 USDOC,Vehicle Inventory

& Use Survey (VIUS), updated to 2003 based on VMT from same Table 13.


Rail freight transport incurs about 8 of the injuries that trucks do per trillion ton miles l.jpg
Rail freight transport incurs about 8% of the injuries that trucks do per trillion ton-miles.

65,000

57,000

5,949

3,695

Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2003, Table 1-4. Rail Ton-Miles in 2003 from

RR Facts, 2004 Ed., p. 32, Eno Foundation. USDOT, FMCSA, Large Truck Crash Facts, 2003, Table 15,

http://ai.volpe.dot.gov/CarrierResearchResults/PDFs/LargeTruckCrashfacts2003.pdf (p. 22)

Tractor-trailer net ton-miles in 2002 estimated at 1.14 trillion from 2002 USDOC,Vehicle Inventory

& Use Survey (VIUS), updated to 2003 based on VMT from Large Truck Crash FactsTable 13.


Railroads incurred 9 fatalities in the last 10 years due to hazmat while trucks incurred 107 l.jpg
Railroads incurred 9 fatalities in the last 10 years trucks do per trillion ton-miles.due to hazmat while trucks incurred 107.

Source: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents

by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr.pdf for 1995 through 2004,

as of 11/14/2005.


Slide53 l.jpg
Railroads now have less than 6% of the hazmat incidents that trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.

Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents

By Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/10yearfrm.htm for 1995 through 2004.

USDOC, 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), Table 1a, for truck ton-miles, updated using VMT from

FHWA Highway Statistics,Table VM-1. STB Waybill Sample for rail ton-miles. In 2003, both the truck

and rail modes hauled an estimated 110 billion ton-miles of hazmat.


Slide54 l.jpg
Railroads now have 21% of the trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.serious hazmat incidents that trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.

(New definition

of “Serious”)

Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials SafetyAdministration, Hazardous Materials Incidents

by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr_new_serious.pdf, as of 11/14/2005.

PHMSA’s new definition defines serious incidents as those involving a fatality or serious injury due to

a hazmat release or evacuation of 25 or more people as the result of a hazmat release or fire.

In 2003, both the truck and rail modes hauled an estimated 110 billion ton-miles of hazmat.


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Railroads now have less than 1/4 of the hazmat trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.accidents that trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.

Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials SafetyAdministration, Hazardous Materials

Incidents by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr_accd.pdf. 11/14/2005

In 2003, both the truck and rail modes hauled an estimated 110 billion ton-miles of hazmat.


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Technological Improvements to Railroad Safety: Track & Equipment

Improved Track

  • Rail steels

  • Welded rail

  • Fasteners

  • Detection of flaws, weak spots

    Improved Equipment

  • Heat treated curved plate wheels

  • Hot box detectors, roller bearings, acoustic detection systems

  • Air brake control valves & air brake tests


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Technological Improvements to Railroad Safety: Tank Cars and SNF

  • Head shields and shelf couplers

  • Thermal insulation

  • Bottom outlet protection

  • Enhanced safety requirements of hazmat tank cars >263,000 lbs or carrying environmentally sensitive chemicals

  • Enhanced standard for cars carrying spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste.


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Railroad Industry Safety Programs: Hazardous Materials SNF

  • AAR North American Non-Accident Release (NAR) Program

  • Transportation & Community Awareness & Emergency Response (TRANSCAER)

  • ACC Responsible Care

  • Operation Respond

  • TTCI's Emergency Response Training Center

  • TTCI's BOE Hazmat Inspections

  • TTCI's BOE Hazmat Safety Information


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Railroad Industry Safety Programs: SNFOperations, Training, Crossings

  • Individual Railroad Employee Safety Programs

  • Crew Resource Management (CRM)

  • Remote Control Operations

  • Full-motion Computerized Train Simulators

  • Interactive Video Individual Training

  • Operation Lifesaver

  • Grade Crossing Upgrade (Section 130) Program


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Railroad Security SNF

  • After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the AAR & its member railroads voluntarily conducted a comprehensive risk assessment and implemented a security action plan with four alert levels.

  • The Security Plan encompasses over 1,300 critical facilities (tunnels, bridges, yards, dispatch centers, etc.) over a 142,000-mile nationwide rail network.

  • The plan evolves in response to classified information obtained through DHS and FBI.

  • DHS has cited this plan as a model for other U.S. industries.


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Railroad Security: SNFCountermeasures include:

  • Employee and customer awareness and training: e.g. to thwart terrorist intelligence gathering, facilitate warning & recovery.

  • Sharing of Intelligence on Threats:

    • AAR Operations Center (24/7) collects, evaluates, and disseminates information to railroads thru the Railway Alert Network (RAN)

    • The Surface Transportation Information Sharing & Analysis Center (ST-ISAC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on physical and cyber-security threats to providers and users of surface transportation.

  • Vetting employees & contractors.

  • Controlling access to critical facilities and shipment info.

  • Securing communications and data and ensuring message integrity and best IT practices.


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Since 1980, U.S. Class I railroads have spent $340 billion on track and equipment.

Capital Expenditures and Maintenance Expenses, Excluding Depreciation, in Billions of Dollars

Equipment

Track & Structures

Sources: AAR, Analysis of Class I Railroads, 1980 - 2004, based on R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I

railroad to the ICC/STB. Equipment: Lines 382+158-151-154-157. Track: Lines 378+149-147.

Note: Current year dollars.


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Since 1991, U.S. Class I railroads have accelerated capital spending on new rail.

Billions of Current Dollars

Capital Expenditures on Rail

Operating Expenses for Rail & Other Track Material

Source: R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I railroad to the ICC/STB, 1987-2004.

Schedule 330, line 8, column e; Schedule 410, lines 1, 14, and 15, column h.


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In the last 10 years, U.S. Class I railroads have laid 5.8 million tons of new rail.

Million Tons of New Rail Laid

Note: Includes new rail laid in replacement and in addition, excludes relay rail.

Sources: AAR, Analysis of Class I Railroads, 1980 – 2004, Lines 366+369+371,

based on R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I railroad to the ICC/STB.


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