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and more Solar System Gravity holds it together Our Good Old Solar System Distance Not To Scale Our New and Improved Solar System Distance Not To Scale The Solar System

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Presentation Transcript
our good old solar system
Our Good Old Solar System

Distance Not To Scale

the solar system
The Solar System
  • The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 165 known moons, three currently identified dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust.
solar system formation
Solar System Formation
  • Gravity pulls together gas and dust
  • The Sun begins to form.
  • Clumps of material grow larger and larger.
  • Planetesimals form
  • Planets form
  • The process is ongoing we are still growing
at the center our sun
At the center… our Sun.
  • Our Sun is an average star that is over 4 billion years old.
  • The Sun makes up over 99 percent of the mass in the solar system!
  • Together, all of the Planets, Moons, Asteroids, Comets and gas make up less than 1 percent.
our sun
Our Sun
  • The Sun on average is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) away from the Earth.
  • However, our orbit is not a perfect circle. We are get closer and farther away.
the inner planets
The Inner Planets
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
  • They are found between the asteroid belt and the Sun
  • They are rocky!
mercury
Mercury
  • Smallest planet
  • No Moons
  • Most Dense
  • Most Extreme Temperature Range
  • Heavily Cratered
  • 800 mile wide crater (Caloris Basin)
  • Days are longer than the Years
  • Fastest Planet
  • Named after the Roman God of Speed
venus
Venus
  • Hottest planet (average Temperature)
  • Named after the Goddess of Beauty and Love.
  • Cloud Covered
  • Intense Pressure
  • No Moons
  • Similar in Size and Composition to Earth
  • Rotates inreverseof Earth
  • Thousands ofVolcanoes
  • Has Craters

Clouds and Surface Shown

earth
Earth
  • You live here
  • Water is found as a solid, liquid and gas.
  • One moon
  • 8,000 mile diameter
  • 6,700,000,000+ people
earth geometry
Earth Geometry
  • Rotation / Revolutions
  • Seasons – Earth’s Tilted Axis
  • Earth’s Axis and Magnet Pole are not the same
  • The 26,000 year wobble
apogee and perigee
Apogee and Perigee
  • The Moon’s orbit is not a perfect circle… sometimes we are closer and sometimes we are further away!
  • The visible difference is about 14 percent.
earth moon interactions
Earth / Moon Interactions

Lunar Phases

  • New
  • Crescent
  • Quarter
  • Gibbous
  • Full
  • (Waxing and Waning)
earth moon interactions19
Earth / Moon Interactions
  • Tides (Caused by Gravity)
tides
Tides
  • Spring Tides
    • High Highs and Low Lows
  • Neap Tides
    • Less range between high and low tides

Distance Not To Scale

tides21
Tides
  • Spring Tides
    • High Highs and Low Lows
  • Neap Tides
    • Less range between high and low tides

Distance Not To Scale

earth moon interactions22
Earth / Moon Interactions
  • Eclipses (Solar / Lunar )
eclipse
Eclipse

Solar

(Sun is Blocked out)

Lunar

(Moon is Blocked out)

Distance Not To Scale

eclipse24
Eclipse

Solar Eclipse as seen from the ISS

slide25
Mars
  • Smaller than Earth
  • Has two small moons
  • Largest Volcano
  • Largest Rift
  • Polar Caps
  • Most likely people will someday walk on Mars
slide26
Mars
  • The Moons of Mars… Phobos and Deimos
slide27
Mars
  • Northern Ice Cap of Mars
asteroid belt
Asteroid Belt
  • Asteroids are primordial objects leftover from the formation of the Solar System
  • It has been estimated that the total mass of the Main Asteroid Belt may total less than 1/1000th of the mass of the Earth.
jupiter
Jupiter
  • Largest Planet
  • Most Moons 40+
  • 4 Moons are Large
  • Rings
  • Gas Planet
  • Red Spot is a Storm
  • Shortest Day
  • King of the Roman Gods
jupiter30
Jupiter

Jupiter size comparison

jupiter31
Jupiter
  • Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium.
  • Jupiter may have a rocky core
jupiter32
Jupiter

Jupiter and moons size comparison and surface pictures of the moons

jupiter33
Jupiter

Jupiter cloud movement animation.

saturn
Saturn
  • Large Gas Planet
  • Many Moons 38+
  • Most / biggest Rings
  • 1 orbit takes 30 Earth Years
  • Saturn was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest.
saturn35
Saturn
  • Saturn size comparison
uranus
Uranus
  • Discovered by William Herschel on 13 March 1781
  • Tilted on it’s side
  • May have had a major collision
  • 20 or more Moons
  • Rings (Discovered when a Star “Winked”)
  • Uranus is
    • 83 percent hydrogen
    • 15 percent helium
    • 2 percent methane
    • and traces of acetylene.
  • Uranus was the father of Saturn in mythology.
uranus37
Uranus
  • Uranus compared to the Earth.
  • Just look at the size of Uranus!
neptune
Neptune
  • Great Dark Spot
  • Wizard’s Eye
  • 8 or more Moons
  • Rings
  • Named after Neptune, the god of the sea
neptune39
Neptune
  • Earth and Neptune size comparison.
the dwarf planets
The Dwarf Planets
  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the official scientific body for astronomical nomenclature, defines a "dwarf planet" as a celestial body within the Solar System that satisfies these four conditions:
  • is in orbit around the Sun
  • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (near-spherical) shape
  • has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit
  • is not a satellite of another planet
ceres
Ceres
  • Located in the Asteroid Belt

(between Mars and Jupiter)

  • Discovered by: Giuseppe Piazzi
  • Discovery date: January 1, 1801
  • Largest of the known Dwarf Planets
ceres43
Ceres

Ceres compared to our Moon.

pluto

Artist Conception of Pluto and Charon

Pluto
  • Has at least 1 moon
  • Most Elliptical Orbit
  • 1 orbit takes 248 Earth Years
  • Most likely a Kuiper Belt Object
  • Composition may be similar to a Comet
  • 3 Natural Satellites
    • Pluto’s large moon is Charon
slide46
Eris
  • Located in the “Scattered Disc” beyond Pluto.
  • Has 1 known moon
  • Discovered by: M. E. Brown,

C. A. Trujillo,

D. L. Rabinowitz

  • Discovery date: October 21, 2003
  • Formally known as Planet X or Zena
other possible dwarf planets
Other possible Dwarf Planets
  • 2005 FY9("Easterbunny")
  • Orcus
  • Sedna
  • 2003 EL61 ("Santa")
  • Quaoar
  • 2002 TC302
  • Varuna
  • 2002 UX25
  • 2002 TX300
  • Ixion
kuiper belt
Kuiper Belt
  • The Kuiper Belt is made of primitive remnants from the early accretion phases of the solar system.
oort cloud
Oort Cloud
  • The Oort cloud is a spherical cloud of comets situated about 50,000 to 100,000 AU from the Sun.
non planets
Non-Planets
  • Comet
  • Asteroid
  • Meteoroid
  • Meteor
  • Meteorite
gene shoemaker
Gene Shoemaker
  • Geologist
  • Studied Impacts and Craters
  • April 28, 1928 - July 18, 1997
  • Buried on the moon
mass extinction
Mass Extinction
  • 65 Million Years Ago
  • ¾ of all species on Earth
  • KT Boundary
  • Radioactive Iridium
  • tektites
  • Shocked Quartz
  • Cenote 110 mile wide Crater in Mexico
  • Gravity Signature
evidence of impact
Evidence of Impact
  • Shocked Quartz
  • Gravity Signature
  • KT Boundary
evidence of impact55
Evidence of Impact
  • Chicxulub, Mexico
ad