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and more Solar System Gravity holds it together Our Good Old Solar System Distance Not To Scale Our New and Improved Solar System Distance Not To Scale The Solar System

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Solar system l.jpg

and more

Solar System


Gravity holds it together l.jpg
Gravity holds it together


Our good old solar system l.jpg
Our Good Old Solar System

Distance Not To Scale


Our new and improved solar system l.jpg
Our New and Improved Solar System

Distance Not To Scale


The solar system l.jpg
The Solar System

  • The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 165 known moons, three currently identified dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust.


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Solar System Formation

  • Gravity pulls together gas and dust

  • The Sun begins to form.

  • Clumps of material grow larger and larger.

  • Planetesimals form

  • Planets form

  • The process is ongoing we are still growing


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At the center… our Sun.

  • Our Sun is an average star that is over 4 billion years old.

  • The Sun makes up over 99 percent of the mass in the solar system!

  • Together, all of the Planets, Moons, Asteroids, Comets and gas make up less than 1 percent.


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Our Sun

  • The Sun on average is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) away from the Earth.

  • However, our orbit is not a perfect circle. We are get closer and farther away.


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The Inner Planets

  • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars

  • They are found between the asteroid belt and the Sun

  • They are rocky!



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Mercury

  • Smallest planet

  • No Moons

  • Most Dense

  • Most Extreme Temperature Range

  • Heavily Cratered

  • 800 mile wide crater (Caloris Basin)

  • Days are longer than the Years

  • Fastest Planet

  • Named after the Roman God of Speed


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Venus

  • Hottest planet (average Temperature)

  • Named after the Goddess of Beauty and Love.

  • Cloud Covered

  • Intense Pressure

  • No Moons

  • Similar in Size and Composition to Earth

  • Rotates inreverseof Earth

  • Thousands ofVolcanoes

  • Has Craters

    Clouds and Surface Shown


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Earth

  • You live here

  • Water is found as a solid, liquid and gas.

  • One moon

  • 8,000 mile diameter

  • 6,700,000,000+ people


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Earth Geometry

  • Rotation / Revolutions

  • Seasons – Earth’s Tilted Axis

  • Earth’s Axis and Magnet Pole are not the same

  • The 26,000 year wobble



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Apogee and Perigee

  • The Moon’s orbit is not a perfect circle… sometimes we are closer and sometimes we are further away!

  • The visible difference is about 14 percent.


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Earth / Moon Interactions

Lunar Phases

  • New

  • Crescent

  • Quarter

  • Gibbous

  • Full

  • (Waxing and Waning)



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Earth / Moon Interactions

  • Tides (Caused by Gravity)


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Tides

  • Spring Tides

    • High Highs and Low Lows

  • Neap Tides

    • Less range between high and low tides

Distance Not To Scale


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Tides

  • Spring Tides

    • High Highs and Low Lows

  • Neap Tides

    • Less range between high and low tides

Distance Not To Scale


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Earth / Moon Interactions

  • Eclipses (Solar / Lunar )


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Eclipse

Solar

(Sun is Blocked out)

Lunar

(Moon is Blocked out)

Distance Not To Scale


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Eclipse

Solar Eclipse as seen from the ISS


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Mars

  • Smaller than Earth

  • Has two small moons

  • Largest Volcano

  • Largest Rift

  • Polar Caps

  • Most likely people will someday walk on Mars


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Mars

  • The Moons of Mars… Phobos and Deimos


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Mars

  • Northern Ice Cap of Mars


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Asteroid Belt

  • Asteroids are primordial objects leftover from the formation of the Solar System

  • It has been estimated that the total mass of the Main Asteroid Belt may total less than 1/1000th of the mass of the Earth.


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Jupiter

  • Largest Planet

  • Most Moons 40+

  • 4 Moons are Large

  • Rings

  • Gas Planet

  • Red Spot is a Storm

  • Shortest Day

  • King of the Roman Gods


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Jupiter

Jupiter size comparison


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Jupiter

  • Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium.

  • Jupiter may have a rocky core


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Jupiter

Jupiter and moons size comparison and surface pictures of the moons


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Jupiter

Jupiter cloud movement animation.


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Saturn

  • Large Gas Planet

  • Many Moons 38+

  • Most / biggest Rings

  • 1 orbit takes 30 Earth Years

  • Saturn was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest.


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Saturn

  • Saturn size comparison


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Uranus

  • Discovered by William Herschel on 13 March 1781

  • Tilted on it’s side

  • May have had a major collision

  • 20 or more Moons

  • Rings (Discovered when a Star “Winked”)

  • Uranus is

    • 83 percent hydrogen

    • 15 percent helium

    • 2 percent methane

    • and traces of acetylene.

  • Uranus was the father of Saturn in mythology.


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Uranus

  • Uranus compared to the Earth.

  • Just look at the size of Uranus!


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Neptune

  • Great Dark Spot

  • Wizard’s Eye

  • 8 or more Moons

  • Rings

  • Named after Neptune, the god of the sea


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Neptune

  • Earth and Neptune size comparison.



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The Dwarf Planets

  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the official scientific body for astronomical nomenclature, defines a "dwarf planet" as a celestial body within the Solar System that satisfies these four conditions:

  • is in orbit around the Sun

  • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (near-spherical) shape

  • has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit

  • is not a satellite of another planet


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Ceres

  • Located in the Asteroid Belt

    (between Mars and Jupiter)

  • Discovered by: Giuseppe Piazzi

  • Discovery date: January 1, 1801

  • Largest of the known Dwarf Planets


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Ceres

Ceres compared to our Moon.



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Artist Conception of Pluto and Charon

Pluto

  • Has at least 1 moon

  • Most Elliptical Orbit

  • 1 orbit takes 248 Earth Years

  • Most likely a Kuiper Belt Object

  • Composition may be similar to a Comet

  • 3 Natural Satellites

    • Pluto’s large moon is Charon


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Eris

  • Located in the “Scattered Disc” beyond Pluto.

  • Has 1 known moon

  • Discovered by: M. E. Brown,

    C. A. Trujillo,

    D. L. Rabinowitz

  • Discovery date: October 21, 2003

  • Formally known as Planet X or Zena


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Other possible Dwarf Planets

  • 2005 FY9("Easterbunny")

  • Orcus

  • Sedna

  • 2003 EL61 ("Santa")

  • Quaoar

  • 2002 TC302

  • Varuna

  • 2002 UX25

  • 2002 TX300

  • Ixion



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Kuiper Belt

  • The Kuiper Belt is made of primitive remnants from the early accretion phases of the solar system.


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Oort Cloud

  • The Oort cloud is a spherical cloud of comets situated about 50,000 to 100,000 AU from the Sun.


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Non-Planets

  • Comet

  • Asteroid

  • Meteoroid

  • Meteor

  • Meteorite


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Gene Shoemaker

  • Geologist

  • Studied Impacts and Craters

  • April 28, 1928 - July 18, 1997

  • Buried on the moon


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Mass Extinction

  • 65 Million Years Ago

  • ¾ of all species on Earth

  • KT Boundary

  • Radioactive Iridium

  • tektites

  • Shocked Quartz

  • Cenote 110 mile wide Crater in Mexico

  • Gravity Signature


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Evidence of Impact

  • Shocked Quartz

  • Gravity Signature

  • KT Boundary


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Evidence of Impact

  • Chicxulub, Mexico



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