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Romania. Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region. Emily Szajna [email protected] Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Spring 2005. Danube Delta. Controlled by Romania & Ukraine Romania: 90%

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Romania l.jpg

Romania

Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region

Emily Szajna

[email protected]

Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe)

Professor Zoltan Grossman

University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire

Spring 2005


Danube delta l.jpg
Danube Delta

Controlled by Romania & Ukraine

Romania: 90%

Danube Delta

Biosphere Reserve

http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ro.html


Source of the problems l.jpg
Source of the Problems

Drains lands through 17 Countries

Population: 165 million

http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2002/danube/


Slide4 l.jpg

Nutrient Flow

Romania is the biggest contributor of

harmful nutrients to the Black Sea

Total nitrogen input :

  • Agriculture: ~44%

2. Industry: 9–10 %

3. Municipal waste

water: 11–12 %


Slide5 l.jpg

Nutrient Flow (Cont.)

Surface water (1994):

~ 284 – 306 kilo tons nitrogen/year

~ 39 – 40 kilo tons phosphorous/year

Total emissions - Phosphorous:

1. agriculture: ~ 58 %

2. industry: ~ 20.6 %

3. municipal waste

water: ~ 11.4 %

Total Nutrient Emissions


Slide6 l.jpg

Iron Gate Gorge, Romania

  • Cheap energy generated at two hydropower stations; very

  • difficult to find sources on environmental effects of the dam and

  • hydropower stations

Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel.

http://www.goamcan.com/photos/dscn_7693.html


Slide7 l.jpg

Rock Sculpture, Romania

The river is the

key to tourism

& economy in

the area

Provides

additional

funding

resources

Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel.

http://www.goamcan.com/photos/dscn_7693.html


Clean up l.jpg

Black Sea in Bloom

Clean-Up

For the cleaning of

polluted water:

* 2,770 cleaning stations have been built

http://www.gesource.ac.uk/worldguide/html/image_551.html

This is a good thing, but with one

major problem!


Problems in clean up l.jpg
Problems in Clean-Up

1997:

Of the cleaning stations existing then, only 300 were working

The other 535 had malfunction issues

The malfunctions are caused by the following factors:

1) lack of materials

2) insufficient qualification of the personnel

3) simple negligence


Ministry of waters woods and environment protection wants to l.jpg

Solutions

Ministry of Waters, Woods and Environment Protection wants to:

1. Reduce pollution by

20% - 1995

http://www.gesource.ac.uk/worldguide/html/image_1882.html

Lower Danube Green

Corridor, Bulgaria and

Romania

2. Bring it down to European

levels by 2000

3. I was not able to find updated information

on whether these goals have been met, but

funding issues slow down the meeting of

these goals.


Funding issues l.jpg
Funding Issues

As a result of the severe pollution problems, this area is subject to special ecological recovery programs, like the Black Sea Agricultural Control Project I will talk about on the next slide.

Financing is provided by the World Bank and the Romanian Government in accordance with specific management programs.

http://www.bnro.ro/En/Ins/


Black sea agricultural control project l.jpg
Black Sea Agricultural Control Project

Goal: Reduce discharge of nutrients through integrated

land and water management

Combine good agricultural practices and wetland

rehab

Better practices include:

crop rotation, conservation tillage

systems, crop cover, and livestock management

system

Causing Eutrophication:

Definition-too many mineral & organic nutrients that promote, for example,

growth of algae eventually causing reduction in oxygen content

causing the extinction of organisms


Status l.jpg
Status

Past 25 years:

Enormous increase in nutrient load to the Black Sea

  • Two- to three-fold increase in nitrates

  • Seven-fold increase in phosphates

Causes:

1. Widespread use of phosphate detergents

2. Intensification of agriculture which uses fertilizers

causing nutrient-leaching from the soil


In recent years l.jpg

Status (Cont.)

In recent years:

Reductions in activity in some areas of the economy,

but does not necessarily mean things are better for the

environment

Volume of pollutants emitted has diminished

somewhat: Is it enough?

Still represents a risk for the quality of water, air, soil

and health of the population


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In Conclusion

Much still needs to be done in cooperation with all the countries that share the Danube River.

Financial concerns in Central European countries

make progress on environmental issues slow, but if

many of these countries, such as Romania, wish to

join the EU – progress to reach the goals that have

been set will have to be made.


References l.jpg
References

  • Romania Geography;http://www.aboutromania.com/geography.html

  • Environmental Protection and Scientific Research in Romania;http://www.biopolitics.gr/HTML/PUBS/VOL5/html/con_rom.htm

  • Sofia Convention;http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/romania/soe2000/eng/cap2/conv.htm

  • Environmental Security Issues in the Black Sea Region;http://www-erd.llnl.gov/library/AR-132297.pdf

  • Romania Agricultural Pollution Control Project;http://www.gefweb.org/COUNCIL/GEF_C15/GEF_C15_Inf.6Romania.doc

  • Environment and Ecological Action; http://www.romanianembassy.dk/romania/mediu.html

  • Central Europe Review; http://www.ce-review.org/99/12/lovatt12.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sea


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