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Public Financial Management International trends Priorities in Armenia. Jens Kromann Kristensen Senior Public Sector Specialist The World Bank . Agenda. Perspectives on public financial management International trends and lessons Reform trends Lessons Impact of the financial crisis

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Public financial management international trends priorities in armenia l.jpg

Public Financial Management International trendsPriorities in Armenia

Jens Kromann Kristensen

Senior Public Sector Specialist

The World Bank


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Agenda

  • Perspectives on public financial management

  • International trends and lessons

    • Reform trends

    • Lessons

    • Impact of the financial crisis

  • Public Financial Management in Armenia

    • Status

    • Challenges

  • Vision: The Armenian Governments Public Financial Management Strategy

  • Q/A - discussion


Perspectives pfm is power policy and politics l.jpg
Perspectives…PFM is power, policy and politics

  • Budgeting is power, policy and politics – the authoritative allocation of resources in a society – who gets what, how, why and when

  • The study of the budget should be a center piece of political science

  • Surprisingly, budgeting not very well researched academically. Most recent analyses are operational/practical/applied research

  • Reform of budget systems is the structuring of politics and power….

  • …but obviously only part of the story…


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Perspectives…PFM and good governance

The budget and the public financial management provides a good entry point for enhancing these principles in a polity.


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Perspectives…PFM and Development


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Perspectives…Objectives

Managing Public Expenditure, introduction, Allen & Tomasi, OECD 2001


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Perspectives…The public financial management cycle

Project

Resource

Planningsystems

Medium term plans

Annual Budgets

appraisal

allocation

Expenditure

Liquidity

review

management

Expenditure review

Funds release

Project monitoring

Accountability

Expenditure

control

Post event

Monitoring

Audit system

Reporting

Accounting

review

& controlling

Source: Adapted from Integrated Financial Management.Michael Parry, International Management Consultants Limited.Training Workshop on Government Budgeting in Developing Countries. THE UNITED NATIONS. December 1997.


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International…Trends

  • Changing global context: emerging pressures on the State

    • Growing global competition – demands for macro stability & competitive investment climate

    • Growing citizen demands for effective service delivery, transparency, & accountability

    • Growing fiscal demands for efficiency & effectiveness

  • Vision– A more capable, responsive & high-performing State that:

    • Provides stability & credible investment climate for growth

    • Delivers public services to make growth inclusive & equitable

    • Ensures value-for-money of public spending

    • Demonstrates transparency, accountability & good governance

  • Demands on public sector: much more performance focus

    A public sector that

    • serves the public and delivers on promises

    • is less inward-looking and rule-bound, and more performance-focused

    • dynamically achieves key objectives and outcomes

Sources: Presentation by GuenterHeidenhof, Sector Manager, Public Sector & Governance November 2010, The World Bank and Manning and Shepherd, Public Management Reform: should Latin America learn from the OECD?


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International…Trends

Source: Manning and Shepherd, Public Management Reform: should Latin America learn from the OECD?


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International…Trends

IN OTHER COUNTRIES

  • Strengthening of Budget Rules to foster aggregate Fiscal Discipline

    • Numerical restrictions, “Fiscal Responsibility” laws

    • Procedural rules – Centralizing authoriy, limiting particularistic interests of ministers and legislators

  • Reforms to improve performance

    • Many countries tried to introduce performance elements in their budgeting framework, but only few countries have mastered sophisticated approaches such as results-based budgeting (e.g. Chile)

    • Some progress in linking development plans to the annual budget (a substantial number of countries around the world)

    • But still a lot of countries with limited linkages between development strategy and budget (e.g. Bolivia, Peru, countries in Africa)

  • Strong focus on Integrated Financial Management Systems (IFMSs)

    • Many successful reforms efforts around the world in 1990s

    • But many systems did not go the “extra mile” to strengthen public procurement or institutions of accountability (e.g. Supreme Audit Institutions)

IN HIGH INCOME OECD COUNTRIES

  • Increasing emphasis on allocative and operational efficiency

    • Introduction or strengthening of many fiscal rules since 1990s for aggregate discipline

    • Responsiveness & performance increasingly targeted allocative & operational efficiency

  • Performance-based budgeting: recent trends

    • Shifting focus from input control to accountability for results

      • Example: UK Public Service Agreements (PSAs) with the Treasury: three-year agreements with objectives & targets, published & monitored by Treasury

  • Accounting & auditing reforms

    • Strengthening accounting practice (e.g. move to accrual accounting) and performance & value-for-money audits

Source: Presentation by GuenterHeidenhof, Sector Manager, Public Sector & Governance The World Bank


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International…Trends

  • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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International…Trends

  • Anti-corruption - anti-corruption commissions

  • Decentralization to lower levels of government

  • Deconcentration – to ministries and creation of agencies

  • Demand-side

    • Legislative oversight, involvement

    • Civil society oversight, participation

  • Sovereign wealth funds

  • Public-Private Partnerships

  • Monitoring and Evaluation

  • Sectoral measures (e.g. road funds)

  • Long-term planning

  • Debt sustainability analysis

  • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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International…Lessons

  • Government-led reform strategy - ideally, government approved

  • Balanced development of components

    • Overly advanced components regress

    • Less advanced hinder progress

    • System components need to work together

  • Focusing on weakest link, foundation elements, good starting point problem-driven reforms provides the soundest foundation

    • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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    International…Lessons

    • Reform should also address current needs of or gaps felt by decision-makers and managers

      • Government (PM or President + Cabinet)

      • Minister of Finance

      • Ministry of Finance

      • Spending ministries

        • Management

        • Budget managers

        • Street level

      • Parliament

      • Civil society

    • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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    International…Lessons

    • Pragmatic, practical reform measures

      • Specific, monitorable measures

  • Benchmarking to assess success

    • Measure current performance as baseline

    • PEFA as broad measure of system performance

  • Improvements should get the right information to the right people at the right time

    • not only data, but information and analysis

    • generally, improved transparency

    • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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    International…Impact of the Crisis

    The global financial crisis has not changed priorities but highlighted even more

    • Expenditure efficiency

    • Performance information for prioritization

    • Wage bill management

    • Better revenue collection

    • Medium-term budgeting and fiscal space

    • Capital investment efficiency

    • Source: Presentation by Dorotinsky, Sector Manager, ECA PREM, Practice Co-Leader, PSPGET,July 2010


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    PFM in ArmeniaGeneral overview

    • PFM in Armenia is well analyzed and documented across the cycle. Strengths and weaknesses are well understood.

    • Major achievements have been made (Planning processes, MTEF and macro management, TSA, cash planning and management, payment processing etc.)

    • Substantial activities have been undertaken in preparation of the next phase of reform including in the areas of i) Program based budgeting, ii) GFMIS, iii) debt management, iv) Internal control, v) Accounting, vi) procurement, Etc.

    • In addition efforts have been initiated to bring the parts together in a comprehensive PFM reform Strategy.

    • Work has gone into formulating a long term PIFC strategy

    • Challenges remain...


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    PFM in Armenia2008 PEFA Self Assessment


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    PFM in Armenia2010 OECD- EC PIFC Gap Analysis

    • Overall Management Structure:

      • Centralization of responsibility – limited delegation

      • Focus on compliance and cash management not efficiency and effectiveness

    • Information systems:

      • GFS 2001 provides a solid basis for budgeting

      • The classification does not deliver on the needs of budget managers

    • Links to objectives:

      • Limited link between resources and objectives at all levels


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    PFM in Armenia2010 OECD- EC PIFC Gap Analysis

    • Internal structures for governance and control

      • No finance director position

      • No risk management

      • Inappropriate supervision of NCOs and public companies

    • Internal assurance measures:

      • Internal audit it weak in regard to independence, regulatory framework and quality

    • Central Harmonization Unit:

      • Just established

    • Internal and external reporting:

      • Line managers are given limited information about budgets and their use

      • External reporting includes only financial information


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    PFM in ArmeniaGovernment Reform Vision2010-2020

    “The purpose of the reforms is to increase the efficiency of public expenditure management thereby ensuring improved quality of policies and delivered services, specifically

    • ensuring fiscal discipline which will contribute to macroeconomic stability and predictability of budget system;

    • guaranteeing the linkage of funds with main policies and priorities through following up on strategic approaches;

    • ensuring value for money and guaranteeing efficient, effective and economic use of funds;

    • ensuring accountability in public spending.

    Source: Government Decree on Approving the Strategy for Reforming the PFM System


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    PFM in ArmeniaGovernment Reform Visions2010-2020

    “The core vision of the reforms is: “Centralized regulation - decentralized management”. To accomplish this, public finance management system reforms should facilitate the establishment of a management culture which,

    • on the one hand ensures centralized (harmonized) regulation of PFM-related procedures and on the other hand;

    • grants powers to managers at all levels (decentralization), and they have obligation and accountability for optimal use of resources (managerial accountability and responsibility).

      The aim of PFM reforms shall be ensuring a PFM system acting in accordance with the following principles in all levels of governance:

    • managerial accountability and responsibility;

    • availability of control;

    • ongoing improvement of services delivered. “

    Source: Government Decree on Approving the Strategy for Reforming the PFM System


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    PFM in Armenia Stages towards the vision


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    PFM in Armenia Challenges to achieving the vision

    • Potential for stronger integration of functional processes

    • Integration and enhanced capability of ICT systems

    • Building Capacity, Professionalization and Motivation of FM staff across the cycle and across Government institutions

    • Reform management, prioritizing, phasing - integration and coordination of reforms at all levels of the reform process (design, implementation, management)


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    PFM in Armenia Priority stage 1 reform activities

    Suggested activities in order of priority:

    • Integration of information and business processes across the budget cycle

    • Strengthening internal control and accounting

    • Gradually advance Program Based Budgeting

    • Build ICT management capacity incl. ICT strategy

      These actions would be pursued in coordination to achieve stage 1 and would be internally sequenced in a work plan.


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    PFM in Armenia Priority reform activities (1/4)

    1. Integration of information and business processes across the budget cycle

    • Why: To enable planned reforms of functional processes (PBB, IPSAS, PIFC), reduce transaction costs, enhance data quality and increase accuracy - i.e to use one capture of data for many purposes.

    • How: Through implementation of ICT enabled business process reengineering ( i) BPR, ii) GFMIS)


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    PFM in Armenia Priority reform activities (2/4)

    2. Strengthening internal control and accounting

    • Why: Mitigate fiduciary risks (incl. SNCOs). Enhance transparency and accountability. Enable decentralization without loss of control.

    • How 1: Establish managerial accountability and clarify overall management structure in line with PIFC. Build internal audit capacity. Develop standards, including public and corporate accounting standards to provide assurance to stakeholders. Adequate information systems including automation of the internal audit function. Establish strong CHU covering both financial management and control and internal audit. Strengthen internal and external reporting. Enhance controls over SNCOs.

    • How 2: Reorganize spending units through delegation and accountability


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    PFM in Armenia Priority reform activities (3/4)

    3. Gradually advance Program Based Budgeting and further strengthen budget preparation processes and capacity

    • Why: To further deepen policy orientation of the budget process and to prepare for results based budgeting implementation and management

    • How: Build on existing process and address downstream implications of Program Based Budgeting (Adjustment of the Chart of Accounts, reporting, treasury operations). Consider a consultation with current and potential PBB users and checklist assessment of template before appropriating against the PBB. Build capacity for investment appraisal. Strengthen risk and sustainability analysis.


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    PFM in Armenia Priority reform activities (4/4)

    • 4. Build ICT management capacity incl. ICT strategy

    • Why: To enable for GFMIS. To improve management of existing systems. To establish data security.

    • How: Improve IT management capacity (technology architecture, policy framework, human resource management). Reconsider infrastructure aspects of GFMIS strategy (wide-area network, data center) in light of e-Government plans of GoA. Identify essential data input and reporting requirements of PFM reform program and develop interim IT solutions for them based on current or new software, according to cost and technology factors. Design and engineer interim IT solutions for possible expansion and industrial strengthening. Execute training plan for internal IT staff (SOA, project management, IT procurement)


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    Assessment and key messages

    • Further integration of business processes are necessary to achieve a next level of PFM.

    • Status quo on ICT is not an option if ongoing reforms are implemented.

    • Work on PPB with a view to strengthening policy orientation of the budget should continue while maintaining the existing execution controls.

    • ICT management capacity should be improved in any reform scenario.

    • Capacity development and change management should take center stage in any reform scenario.

    • Current plans for reforms implies a rather large investment. Further preparatory activities should be informed by priorities and funding availability.

    • PIFC is an important but complicated and long term process. Focus on delegation and organization is hugely important for the efforts to go beyond increased compliance control.

    • PIFC and reforms to “up-stream” reforms should go hand in hand



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