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Exploring the Basics of Constructivism and Discourse Analysis with a Focus on Technology Enhancements Day 3. Course Overview. Day 1 - Constructivism and technology in English language teaching Day 2 - National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) and English language teaching

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Exploring the Basics of Constructivism and Discourse Analysiswith a Focus on Technology EnhancementsDay 3

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Course Overview

  • Day 1 - Constructivism and technology in English language teaching

  • Day 2 - National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) and English language teaching

  • Day 3 - Discourse Analysis and technology in English language teaching

  • Day 4 - Teaching S.M.A.R.T with the Internet (hands on use of Internet tools)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 - Overview - Discourse Analysis and Technology in English Language Teaching*

  • Day 3 Task 1- Share What You Know about Discourse Analysis

  • Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. Basics

  • Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics

  • Day 3 Task 4 - Analyze the Discourse Processing Framework

  • Day 3 Task 5 - Review D.A. and Pragmatics Basics: Discussion

    *Information for much of this presentation is based on Celce-Murcia, M & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 - Overview - Discourse Analysis and Technology in English Language Teaching*

  • Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology

  • Day 3 Task 7 - Consider Writing: Basic Assumptions + Freewrite

  • Day 3 Task 8 - Consider Writing: Written Text Production Framework

  • Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Instruction-Writing and Rewriting

  • Day 3 Task 10 - Reflect Using the Nicenet Discussion Board

    *Information for much of this presentation is based on Celce-Murcia, M & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 1- Share What You Know about Discourse Analysis

Small Group Discussion - Consider these questions:

  • What does Discourse Analysis (D.A.) mean to you?

  • What are some important components of D.A.?

  • Give a concrete example of how D.A. impacts your classroom teaching.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. Basics

Can you complete these quotations?

  • “The ___ of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis of ___ in use. As such, it cannot ___ restricted to the description ___ linguistic forms independent of the purposes or functions which ___ forms are designed to serve ___ human affairs.”

    (Brown and Yule, 1983:1)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. Basics

  • “. . . One must learn more ___ just the pronunciation, the lexical ___, the appropriate word order, . . . One ___ also ___ the appropriate way to use ___ words ___ sentences in the ___ language.”

    (Gass and Selinker, 1994:182)

  • What enabled you to complete these texts?

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. Basics

  • D.A is the study of language in use that extends beyond sentence boundaries.

  • Types of discourse: Written or Spoken

    • Both distinguished by:

      • Register (level of formality)

      • Genre (communicative purpose, audience, style and format).

    • Both can be:

      • Monologic (one speaker/writer)

      • Dialogic (two or more construct the discourse)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. BasicsFive fields of study within D.A

Cohesion - Structural language features of a text which tie it together (“bottom-up” connections)

  • Grammatical ties: (reference, ellipsis, substitution and conjunction)

    • Ex: I am a working mother with two pre-teens. After dropping them off at school, I have to get right to work. But my children are disorganized and always late. A few times, I have had to turn around and go back home because one or the other forgot something.

  • Lexical ties: (e.g. repetition)

    • Ex: Natural beauty plays a starring role in Santa Monica, and seaside is the perfect vantage point from which to watch the performance. . . the show begins just after sunrise.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. BasicsFive fields of study within D.A

Coherence - Unity and relatedness of a piece of writing (“top down” planning and organization).

Coherence is created by:

  • Recognizable patterns (genres), e.g. cause-effect, compare/contrast (May be culture specific)

  • Words, sentences and paragraphs relating to one another linguistically (e.g. semantically or syntactically)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. BasicsFive fields of study within D.A

Information Structure - Languages use grammatical and discourse features to indicate which information is “old” (known) and “new” (unknown).

  • Old information = the “topic.” Runs throughout the discourse to aid understanding

  • New information = the “comment.” Gives added information about the “topic.”

  • Topics (old information) generally precede comments (new information) in order of presentation.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. BasicsFive fields of study within D.A

Turn-Taking in Conversation Analysis - Determines who will speak next. Varies by culture.

  • Components include:

    • How conversations open and close

    • Who speaks when and for how long

    • How much time elapses between turns

    • Whether speakers overlap

  • Adjacency Pairs: The first speaker says something that requires a standard response. Discourse in all languages include thousands of these. Important to teach.

    • Ex:

      • Hello, How are you?

      • Fine, thanks.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. BasicsFive fields of study within D.A

Critical Discourse Analysis - Primary objective is to examine language to expose social inequality.

  • Looks at discriminatory use of language directed at:

    • Women

    • Lower socioeconomic classes

    • Members of ethnic, racial, religious, language minorities, etc.

  • Suggests remedies such as

    • Nondiscriminatory behaviors

    • Replacing problematic discourse (Politically Correct: P.C)

  • Many critical discourse analysts believe foreign and second language teaching are highly political acts.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 2- Review D.A. Basics Context

Context - All the events going on when people speak and write (non textual; non linguistic)

  • Context embedded - discourse that depends heavily on context for its meaning

  • Context-reduced or Decontextualized - discourse that depends more on linguistic features and forms for its meaning

  • Shared knowledge - Reliance on prior knowledge for comprehension. Critical to establish in L2 classroom.

    • Example: MLK Dream Speech needs context of Civil Rights Movement for students to understand it.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore PragmaticsDefinition and Characteristics

  • Pragmatic competence is a set of internalized rules that govern how to use a language considering:

  • sociocultural appropriateness

    • the participants in the interaction

    • context in which the interaction takes place

  • Pragmatic competence as a study is:

    • Less formal than lexico/grammatical competence

    • Less objective because deals with human behavior

    • Becoming an area of increasing research importance

  • Resource: Bardovi-Harlig and Mahan-Taylor (eds). (2003). Teaching Pragmatics. Available online http://exchanges.state.gov/education/engteaching/pragmatics.htm

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Context and Intention

  • Pragmatics studies:

    • Context of interactions

    • Intentions of the language producer

  • What are the various meanings of these statements?

    • I am hungry. (child arriving home from school)

    • I am hungry. (same child after eating sandwich)

    • I am hungry. (beggar on the street to passerby)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Communicative Competence

  • Shared knowledge enables understanding

  • L2 learner must

    • understand how the language works (linguistics) AND

    • understand sociocultural patterns of behavior (pragmatics)

  • Mastery of linguistic and pragmatic knowledge equals communicative competence.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Misunderstandings

  • Ex: US university student in a departmental office on campus, speaking with office clerk (both native speakers).

    • St: Excuse me, where can I make some Xerox copies?

    • Clerk: For?

    • St: (silence)

    • Clerk: Are you an instructor?

    • St: No, a student.

    • Clerk: We can only make Xerox copies for instructors.

    • St: Well, I. . . OK. But where can I find a [pay] Xerox machine? (the original intent of her question).

    • Clerk: Oh, I see. Up the stairs, past the bookstore.

  • What caused this misunderstanding?

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Cooperative Principle

Pragmatics also includes:

  • Cooperative Principle - Interactants want to communicate successfully. (4 maxims)

    • Appropriate quantity

    • Appropriate quality

    • Appropriate relevancy

    • Appropriate manner

  • Maxims often violated when interactants don’t share same culture/language

    • Example: When asked for directions, if L2 speaker responds with many details, may annoy or offend.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Speech Acts

Pragmatics also includes:

  • Speech Acts - Language used to serve social functions.

  • Speech Acts performed in contexts that help interpret speaker’s intention

    • Ex: “It’s really cold in here.” (If in a classroom and the listener is near a window, it can be interpreted as a request for listener to close the window).

    • Ex: Teacher says, “I will have to inform your parents of your behavior.” Can be interpreted as a threat to cause the student problems at home.

  • Speech Acts require shared understanding of context in order to be interpreted correctly.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 3- Explore Pragmatics Politeness

Pragmatics also includes:

  • Politeness - Perceptions, expectations, communicative strategies that promote social harmony

  • Politeness frameworks: what is considered polite varies by culture.

    • Negative politeness = avoids imposition (Japanese)

    • Positive politeness = expects imposition (Jewish American)

      • Example: Japanese daughter-in-law brings own food when visiting her Jewish American mother-in-law for lunch.

    • Body language, eye contact and gestures also relevant to politeness

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 4 Analyze theDiscourse Processing Framework

Learners ideally use a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing to produce/understand discourse

  • Top down = Combine prior knowledge (content schemata) sociocultural and discourse knowledge (formal schemata) with knowledge of pragmatic and contextual features

  • Bottom up = Combine language knowledge (grammar, vocabulary, phonology, etc) with specific communication features of context: verbal, nonverbal cues, etc)

  • Metacognitive awareness = strategies to fine-tune production/understanding

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 4 Analyze theDiscourse Processing Framework

See Discourse Processing Framework

  • Ovals = Knowledge components (knowledge = being explicitly able to describe, e.g. grammar rules or word meanings)

  • Triangles = Processing components (processing = applying rules/skills automatically without thinking)

  • Diamonds = Metacognition (learner thinking about her language process and choosing appropriate strategies)

  • Center rectangular box = Spoken or written discourse; production or comprehension/interpretation

  • Note: Discourse and Pragmatics can be inside both shapes-sometimes reflect knowledge, sometimes processing.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 5 - Review D.A. and Pragmatics Basics: Discussion

  • Why are both D.A. and pragmatics important in teaching language for communication?

  • How do (or could) you expose your students to authentic, native-speaker English to practice the pragmatic aspects of English? Brainstorm a list of possibilities. Could technology help?

    • ESL-ISL Listening Resources (Lower Level)

    • English Listening Lab Online

  • Choose one concept from D.A. or pragmatics that have been presented so far that you would like to know more about. Why did you choose that aspect? How can you find more information about it?

    .

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore PhonologyOverview

Phonology = the linguistic study of sounds system

  • See phonology processing framework

  • Segmentals = study of individual vowel and consonant sounds

  • Supersegmentals (Prosody) = the music of the language

    • Rhythm (the timing of syllable length, stess, and pauses)

    • Intonation (pitch patterns)

  • Segmental study has been overemphasized

  • Supersegmental study is more fruitful:

    • Easier for learners to modify

    • Affects ability to make inferences, follow politeness rules, follow social rules and be culturally appropriate.

      .

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology Troublespots

  • Intonation - Errors can cause change in meaning.

    • Ex: Greek falling intonation for Yes/No Q’s vs. English rising intonation. Are you COMing? (judged rude)

  • Rhythm - Incorrect rhythm causes misunderstandings

    • Ex: Spanish speaker at combination pharmacy/food counter asked for

      “ahs pee REEN” and was given rice pudding.

  • English is a stress-determined language. Unstressed words very quickly spoken. Compare syllabic languages where duration of sentence depends on number of syllables.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology A Few Basic Rules

  • Stress - New information typically comes near the end of an utterance and receives the greatest stress.

    • Example: I’ve been to the BOOKstore. The new information is “bookstore” and the stress is on BOOK. or I’ve been to the STORE. (new information is STORE).

  • Stress - Not ALL words in English are stressed. Only the content words are normally stressed.

    • Nouns, adjectives, adverbs and main verbs are content words.

    • Ex: JOHN and MARY WENT to the BEACH on SATURDAY.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology A Few Basic Rules

  • Structure words such as auxiliary verbs, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, and conjunctions are usually unstressed. If stressed, a difference in meaning results.

    • Ex: John AND Mary WENT to the beach on SATURDAY (emphasizes that BOTH people went-perhaps unexpectedly)

  • Typical rhythm of English = each “thought group” has one strong syllable, occur at regular interval regardless of # of syllables.

    • Ex: JACK/SELLS/CARS; JACK has SOLD/some CARS,

    • JACK has been SEL/ling some CARS

    • Vary greatly in # of syllables, but all three phrases are spoken using the same amount of time!

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology Application to Teaching

  • Give students examples showing that a change in intonation or rhythm can change meaning.

  • Expose students to native speaker discourse that they can control (tape, computer). Provide a transcript if possible. See ESL-ISL (higher levels)

  • Give students the chance to see/hear themselves (videotape = best). Give feedback and allow them to practice, improve and see themselves again.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 6 - Explore Phonology Application to Teaching

  • Sample resources:

    • Prosody on the Web Tutorials

      • http://www.eptotd.btinternet.co.uk/pow/powin.htm

    • Sounds of English Pronunciation Activities

      • http://www.soundsofenglish.org/tips.htm

    • Mock Trial Videotape (My students) (very long download 20MB)

    • Actual Trial

      • http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/danielle/20020807-9999-noon.html

    • Teaching Intonation to ESL/EFL Students (Internet TESL Journal)

      • http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html

    • ESL Independent Study Lab (Pronunciation Section)

      • http://www.lclark.edu/~krauss/toppicks/pronunciation.html

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 7 - Consider Writing Basic Assumptions + Freewrite

  • Writing is not easy.

  • Starting to write is difficult for L1 and L2 writers

  • Writing is a complex task requiring top down and bottom up skills

  • Job of writing teacher is to provide guided assistance, grounded in research

  • Teachers need to encourage students to write by providing interesting context and favorable environment.

  • Freewrite for 5 minutes explaining how you feel about your own writing process.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 8 - Consider Writing Written Text Production Framework

  • Examine the framework for writing. Identify the top-down and bottom up components.

  • For L2 learners, first focus on top-down elements: (content, unity, coherence ) before attending to bottom up elements: (grammar, spelling, punctuation).

  • Contrastive rhetoric

    • Different culture/language groups develop different rhetorical patterns.

    • English takes linear structure. Introduction and thesis presented early in the writing

    • Compare with Japanese who hint at main theme, but not express until later in the writing

  • Teacher provides specific strategies to develop coherence

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Hands-on Activity to Build Coherence

  • Complete the following activity that promotes creation of coherent text. Fill in each blank with one word.

  • It is a great experience to go on a (1)_____. I went to the (2)_____and sat down. For a while I looked at the (3) _____. Then I listened to the (4) _____. It was very (5) _____. The lady next to me was (6) _____. Her eyes were (7)_____ and she had two (8)_____ and another small (9)_____. Later that day we almost became (10)_____. When we arrived at (11)_____, I felt very (12) _____. I knew that I would always (13)_____ the experience. I knew I would never (14) _____ it.

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Writing Instruction-Breaking Writer’s Block

  • Anxiety often comes from fear, “I don’t have anything to write about!”

  • Pre-writing is crucial to generate ideas

    • Brainstorming

    • Listing

    • Graphic Organizers

  • Metacognitive activity = good opening assignment

    • How do I feel about my writing

    • What makes it easier/harder for me to write

    • How would I like to be able to write

    • Example of metacognitive opening essay assignment: Compare Your Writing to an Animal

      • http://www.lclark.edu/~krauss/aes220/meet/dominique.html

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Writing Instruction-Providing Motivating, Relevant Writing Tasks

  • Writer needs to write for a communicative purpose

  • Writer needs to be engaged in his subject matter

  • Writer needs to write for a real audience (not just the teacher!)

    • What does the audience know about the topic? Like to know?

    • How can the writer best organize to facilitate understanding?

    • What techniques could make the writing appealing?

  • Technology can help

    • Internet reaches wide audience with multimedia student work

      • http://www.lclark.edu/~krauss/culturecapsules2002/changweb/chang.html

    • Computer facilitates motivating projects + work on top-down skills

      • http://www.lclark.edu/~krauss/quandarytasks/quandaryprojectssp2003/taka/takafumi.htm

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Writing Instruction-Providing Help Organizing

  • L2 writers need special help with planning

  • L2 writers do less planning and have more problems organizing than L1 writers

    • Contrastive Rhetoric provides one possible reason - Different cultures use different rhetorical models

    • L2 also have bottom up issues to focus on--may be hard to focus on top-down coherence issues

  • Outlining and flowcharting help

  • Group outlining incorporates Constructivist qualities

  • Technology can help:

    • Inspiration is organizing software that can be used to help students plan.(Interactive Demo). Free downloads for 30 days available.

      • http://www.inspiration.com/

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 9 - Consider Writing Writing Instruction-Writing and Rewriting

  • Writing is a recursive process

    • Pre-writing, Writing, Feedback, Revision, Feedback, Editing

  • Teachers (or peer reviewers) should ideally read for content and organization first (top-down skills)

  • Bottom up skills (grammar, punctuation, spelling) ideally should be dealt with later in the writing process

    • Excessive corrections early in the writing process can stifle motivation and discourage risk taking

  • Technology can help:

    • Drafts can be easily revised using word processing software

    • Online thesaurus excellent for vocabulary development

    • Students can email essays as email attachments

    • “Track Changes” feature in Word useful to record changes in document

    • Use Concordancer to see lexical items in context. (See ON CALL article)

Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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Day 3 Task 10 - Reflect Using the Nicenet Discussion Board

  • Click here to go to Nicenet (http://www.nicenet.org/)

  • Log in with your username and password

    • If you have not created an account yet:

      • Your class key is .ZZ0979S26 (Don't forget the "dot"! Also, third digit = zero, not the letter "o”)

  • Reflect on what we’ve learned today and what you’d like to do tomorrow.

  • Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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    Selected Resources on D.A.

    • Brown, G., & Yule, G. (1983). Discourse analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Celce-Murcia, M & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

    • Nunan, D. (1993). An introduction to discourse analysis. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.

    • Wang, A. & Newlin, M. (2003). A discourse analysis of online classroom chats: Predictors of cyber-student performance. Computers in Teaching, 28(3). Retrieved December 31, 2004 from http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/discourse_analysis.pdf.

    Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


    Selected resources on phonology l.jpg

    Selected Resources on Phonology

    • Allen, V.F. (1971). Teaching intonation: From theory to practice. TESOL Quarterly, 5(1), 73-81.

    • Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D., & Godwin, J. (1996). In Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages (pp. 131-220). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Celce-Murcia, M. & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

    Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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    More Resources on Phonology

    • McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse analysis and phonology. In Discourse analysis for language teachers (pp. 88-117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Rajadurai, J. (July-Sept. 2001). An investigation of the effectiveness of teaching pronunciation to Malaysian TESL students, Forum, 39 (3), 10. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/ vols/ vol39/ no3/p10.htm

    • Wong. R.(1988). Teaching pronunciation: Focos on rhythm and intonation. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

    Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


    Selected resources on writing l.jpg

    Selected Resources on Writing

    • Celce-Murcia, M. & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

    • Cumming, A. (1998). Theoretical perspectives on writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 61-78.

    • Kroll, B. (Ed.).(1990). Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom.New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Leki, I. (1995). Coping strategies of ESL students in writing tasks across the curriculum. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 235-260.

    • Moran, K. (March 2005). Teaching with Concordances. On Call 22(2). Retrieved March 9, 2005 from http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/article.asp?vid=192&DID=3503&sid=1&cid=768&iid=3491&nid=3303

    • Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Tribble, C. (1996). Writing. Oxford University Press.

    Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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    Research on CACD in Writing

    • Research shows that CACD (Computer Assisted Classroom Discussion) is a productive tool in the L2 writing class.

      • More participatory than face to face

      • Lexically and syntactically complex writing produced

      • Useful to develop linguistic accuracy

      • Coherent thought and wide range of cohesive linguistic structures

    • CACD includes:

      • Asynchronous (e.g. email or bulletin board)

      • Synchronous (e.g. chat or MOO)

      • Hypermedia (e.g. Web page authoring)

    • Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and writing. In C. Davison & J. Cummins (Eds.), Handbook of English Language Teaching. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

      • http://www.gse.uci.edu/markw/technology.pdf

    Michael Krauss/UPNFM Tegucigalpa, Honduras


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