PATHOGEN REDUCTION                      A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE
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PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATION AT SLAUGHTER. John N. Sofos May 7, 2002. Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter. Decontamination Processes or Interventions Before hide removal

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PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE

PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATION AT SLAUGHTER

John N. Sofos

May 7, 2002


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Decontamination Processes or Interventions

  • Before hide removal

    • Animal cleaning and hair removal

    • Chemical dehairing

  • After hide removal

    • Knife-trimming or Steam-vacuuming

    • Washing/Spraying/Rinsing

      • Water or Chemicals; Cold or Hot

    • Pressurized steam

    • Chilling

  • Multiple Combined/Sequential Interventions

  • Fabrication/Distribution/Processing/Retail?


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

ANIMAL CLEANING

AND

HAIR REMOVAL


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Animal cleaning and hair removal

    • Fecal tag and hair removal

    • Animal washing

    • Variable results

    • Limited application

    • Climate/facilities

    • Alternatives:

      • Segregate soiled animals

      • Reduce slaughter speed

      • Increase personnel


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

CHEMICAL DEHAIRING


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Chemical dehairing

    • Effective procedure

    • Sodium sulfide and hydrogen peroxide

    • Spraying

    • Capital investment

    • Waste handling

      • Sodium sulfide: regeneration and reuse

      • Hydrolyzed hair: fertilizer


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

KNIFE-TRIMMING

AND

STEAM-VACUUMING


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Knife-Trimming

    • Required “Zero Tolerance”

    • Variable results for microbial reduction

    • Potential for spreading and cross-contamination

    • Necessary and important for aesthetics

  • Steam-vacuuming

    • Spot decontamination (1 inch)

    • Variable results

    • Equipment maintenance

    • Employee diligence


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

CARCASS WASHING

AND

DECONTAMINATION


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Whole (pre-evis) or half (before chilling) carcass

    • Immersion/flooding/deluging/cascading

    • Spraying or rinsing

    • Water or chemical solutions

    • Important variables:

      • Method, stage and time of application

      • Equipment design and maintenance

      • Pressure and nozzle type

      • Temperature

      • Chemicals

      • Duration


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Carcass decontamination before evisceration

    • Spraying/Rinsing

    • Prevention of attachment

    • Organic acid solutions

    • Spraying pressure limitations

      • Weight gain concerns

    • Water temperature limitations

      • Condensation problems


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Final carcass water washing

  • Thermal decontamination

    • Hot water (>74oC)

    • Pressurized steam

  • Chemical decontamination

    • Spraying/Rinsing

    • Organic acids (1.5-2.5%)

    • Acetic

    • Lactic

    • Warm (55oC)


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Chemical decontamination

    • Chlorine/Chlorine dioxide (20-50 ppm)

    • Trisodium phosphate (8-12%)

    • Ozone

    • Acidified sodium chlorite

    • Peroxyacetic acid-based

    • Activated lactoferrin

    • Cetylpyridinium chloride

    • Acidified calcium sulfate

    • Hydrogen peroxide


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Other chemical decontaminants after carcass washing:

    • Sodium chloride

    • Sodium hydroxide

    • Nisin

    • Potassium sorbate

    • Sodium bisulfate

  • Other decontamination processes after carcass washing:

    • Ionizing radiation

    • UV radiation

    • Microwaves

    • Pulsed light

    • Electric fields

    • Hydrostatic pressure

    • Sonication


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

MULTIPLE

COMBINED AND/OR SEQUENTIAL

DECONTAMINATION


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Decontamination with multiple interventions

    • Combinations of treatments:

      • Warm acid solutions

      • Steam and vacuum

    • Sequential application of:

      • Animal cleaning

      • Chemical dehairing

      • Knife-trimming

      • Steam-vacuuming

      • Pre-evisceration washing

      • Final carcass washing

      • Chemical and/or thermal decontamination

      • Carcass chilling


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

Commercial Beef Carcass Decontamination in 6 Plants

Positive/Tested

TreatmentsListeria Salmonella E.coli O157:H7

Control 62/142 43/142 1/142

Trimmed (T) 35/140 11/142 3/142

Washed (W) 39/143 13/144 1/144

T + W 18/143 2/144 2/144

Reagan et al. (1996)


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

CARCASS WASHING

AND

DECONTAMINATION

CONCERNS


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Concerns associated with decontamination processes

    • Variability: plant, animal lot, method, animal type, season, anatomical site, plant site, method of sampling

    • Spreading or redistribution of bacteria

    • Penetration

    • Attachment/Biofilms

    • Removal vs. Inactivation vs. Injury

    • Selection/resistance/adaptation


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

Salmonella in 4 Steer/Heifer and 3 Cow/Bull Plants

Animal Type and Season Variation

Sofos et al. (1999)


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUEAnimal lot and plant variation in carcass contamination with E. coli O157:H7 (Percent positive) Elder et al. (2000)

Plant Lot Fecal Hide Pre-evis Post-evis Washed

A 1/1 77 11 56 17 0

1/2 0 0 75 0 0

1/3 13 6 56 0 0

2/1 22 0 0 0 0

B 1/1 0 0 0 0 0

1/2 0 0 11 0 0

1/3 10 0 60 38 0

2/1 44 78 89 78 22

C 1/3 30 0 80 60 0

D 1/1 0 0 38 0 0


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Decontamination intervention concerns

    • Safety of application

      • Toxicology

      • Worker health

      • Product safety

    • Product quality

      • Appearance

      • Taste

      • shelf-life

      • Functionality

    • Environmental concerns

      • Waste/Pollution

      • Equipment


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

RECONTAMINATION CONCERNS

AND POTENTIAL FOR

POST-SLAUGHTER DECONTAMINATION


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Contamination concerns following slaughter

    • Carcass chilling

      • Contamination reduction?

      • Microbial growth?

      • Additional contamination?

      • Chilling rate

      • Chilling uniformity

      • Sanitation and hygiene


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter DIALOGUE

  • Carcass fabrication concerns

    • New and additional contamination

    • Spreading and redistribution

    • Microbial growth

    • Sanitation and hygiene

    • Room temperature

    • Time duration

    • Potential decontamination interventions

      • Application technology issues

      • Labeling issues


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Mean TPC On Carcasses, Belts & Subprimals As Processing Time Progressed

Log CFU/100 cm2

Time Of Day

Bacon et al. (2002)


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Acid-adapted ProgressedListeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged beefNot-treated: , Water (55°C): , Water (75°C): , Lactic acid (55°C): , Acetic acid (55°C):

a

a

a

a

a

b

a

a

b

b

c

b

2

a

a

b

c

b

d

b

c

d

b

c

c

d

(Ikeda et al., 2001)


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter Progressed

QUESTIONS

CONCERNS

ISSUES


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter ProgressedQuestions/Concerns/Issues

  • Spreading of contamination and cross-contamination

  • Animal lot and plant variation

  • Extent of carcass and product area contaminated

  • Prevalence vs population reductions by decontamination

  • Transfer of contamination from carcasses to meat

  • Fabrication contamination concerns and interventions

  • Instantaneous or short intensity interventions

  • Intensity inadequate for complete inactivation

  • Alteration of metabolic activity of survivors?

  • Changes in plant and meat microbial association

  • Selection/Adaptation/Cross-protection/Virulence?


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter Progressed

SUMMARY

  • Decontamination interventions are useful:

    • Reduce carcass contamination (1-3 logs)

    • Reduce pathogen prevalence

    • Assist plants meet regulatory/industry criteria

  • However, they should be:

    • Evaluated for potential unpredictable risks

    • Optimized for maximum benefits with no risks

  • Consider potential long term effects of interacting sublethal interventions on the microbial ecology of plants and raw and ready-to-eat products


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Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter Progressed

  • Select and apply proper interventions of the right intensity and in the correct sequence in order to maximize antimicrobial effects and minimize resistance development

  • Evaluate further processing concerns

  • Research new technologies and beyond slaughter

  • Validation of decontamination technologies

  • Minimize decontamination variations

  • Not ready-to-eat until further processed/cooked

  • Useful in reducing probability of illness when product intentionally or unintentionally undercooked

SUMMARY


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