Lula da Silva Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Brazil. By Ted Goertzel Rutgers University Camden NJ 08102. January 1, 2003 Democratic transition from from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Lula da Silva Born 27 Oct 1945 in the interior of Pernambuco
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By Ted Goertzel
Camden NJ 08102
Democratic transition from from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Born 27 Oct 1945 in the interior of Pernambuco
Seventh of eight children
Father left for São Paulo and his wife’s cousin just before Lula was born
Raised in extreme poverty in the interior of Pernambuco
Mother, Dona Lindu, the dominant influence in his childhood
Born 18 June 1931 in Rio de Janeiro
First born of three
Good relationship with both parents
Raised in a family with a distinguished history
Father a leftist army officer, lawyer and politician
Paternal grandmother dominant figure at homeChildhood
Fernando Henrique with his mother and his paternal grandmother.
Lula at 3 years old with sister Maria. The clothes and shoes were loaned to him for the photograph.
Parents and siblings
Father beside a bust of FHC’s grandfather.
Grandfather on his white horse
Cardoso is a Social Democrat but is often stigmatized as a “neoliberal.” He was elected President in 1994 by an alliance between his Brazilian Social Democratic Party and the Party of the Liberal Front. He was sent to the Senate in1982 by the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. As a youth, he was affiliated with a cultural group of the Brazilian Communist Party.
Lula growing up...
He told his brothers the best thing their father ever did for them was to leave with another woman
He rebelled against his father by getting an education and having a more successful career
He cried the first time he spent a night away from his mother - on his honeymoon
His mother strongly supported his drive to get an education
He won the struggle for his mother’s love when she broke with his two-timing fatherA Mother’s Boy
Mother and siblings moved to Santos in the back of a truck when he was seven
Worked as vendor, shoe shiner and delivery boy
Public elementary school
Mother separated from abusive husband, moved to São Paulo with children
Won admission to three-year training program as a lathe mechanic
Father encouraged him to pursue his literary and intellectual interests
Did well in school, but failed Latin exam for law school
Majored in social sciences because of interest in Brazilian nationalism
Involved with an intellectual journal linked to the Communist PartyYouth
Fernando Henrique with wife Ruth and son
Marries a fellow worker
Wife and newborn die in childbirth with poor medical care
Works as a lathe operator
Marries a widow, Marisa, who has a son
Becomes active in the metal workers union
Jailed briefly by military regime as a strike leader
Marries a fellow student and starts a family
Joins Marxist study group with friends who become leading intellectuals
Begins academic career
Forced into comfortable exile by the 1964 military coup
Becomes intellectual star in exile in Chile and FranceYoung Adulthood
Arrested by the military police in 1980 during a 41 day general strike in the industrial suburbs of Sao Paulo.
married, and showing the first PT flag which she sewed.
Decided to join the group forming the Workers Party in 1979 when the military allows multiple parties
Joins in forming an independent labor federation, the Central Única dos Trabalhadores in 1983
Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984
Decides not to join the Workers Party and joins the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement
Elected as Alternate to the Senate on MDB ticket, succeeds to Senate when Franco Montoro becomes governor of São Paulo
Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984Entering Politics
to the founding of the Partido
dos Trabalhadores. Upper left
is a discussion with Communist
On the campaign trail
Suddenly, this clarity to notice
Who has always been sincere and to trust,
Without fear of being happy.
I want to see it come...
Lula-lá! A star is shining!
Lula-lá! Hope grows!
Lula-lá! In this child-Brazil and in the joy of embracing...
Lula-lá! With sincerity,
Lula-lá! For you, my first vote,
Lula-lá! To make our star shine!
Lula-lá! That\'s we together!
Lula-lá! It was worth the wait!
Lula-lá! My first vote
To make our star shine!
("Lula lá!", by Hilton Acioly, theme-tune of the 1989 campaign).
Upper left with Manoelzao
Lower left with Cinta Larga
and Surui Indians
conference with Finance
Minister Antonio Palocci
The Liberal Party is a small
group with a base among
Protestant activists. The alliance
with them showed that the PT was
willing to play the Brazilian political
game of opportunistic coalitions.
Gilberto Gil is one of the most important singers, composers and instrumentalists in Brazilian popular music. Fluent in English, French, he is affiliated with the Green Party
Minister of Culture Gilberto Gil and Actor Carlos Mamberti review participants on National Samba Day
Minister of Sport Agnelo Queiroz visits the Olympic Village of Indigenous Games in Palmas, Tocantins. A physician from Bahia and former federal deputy, he is a leader of the PC do B, the Communist Party of Brazil
Cristovam Buarque was replaced as Minister of Education when he persisted in criticizing the government for not spending more on the universities.
He was replaced by Tarso Genro, former Workers Party Mayor of Porto Alegre and Marxist scholar
José Graziano, former Minister of Food Security and Combat Against Hunger
The “Zero Hunger” program was poorly conceived and administered. It has now been folded into the Ministry of Social Development and has resumed emphasis on the family scholarship program begun by Cristovam Buarque and popularized under FHC.
Lula is a social drinker whose job requires him to attend a great many social events. He also is inclined to gain weight from attending too many banquets.
Thirty thousand people protest social security reform, in Brasilia, June 2003
Dirceu to public employees: The Government will no longer negotiate the social security reform.
Public employees smash windows in Congress to try to stop the vote on social security reform.
In carrying out this reform, Lula was implementing a proposal that the Workers Party and its allies had blocked under FHC.
Do not be fooled by the wolf dressed in sheep’s clothing. He wants to privatize public services. The Federal Government’s Administrative Reform proposal will weaken the Brazilian State. We will revive the public service with professional training for public servants and better use of the contributors’ money. Only in this way will we have schools, hospitals, police services… of good qualify for all.
Wake up while there is still time, because the bite of the wolf is near!!!
Movement to Defend the Public Service
Parliamentary Front in Defense of the Public Service
This attack on FHC applies better to Lula
A Greenpeace protestor wearing a Lula mask. Protesting the legalization of genetically modified seeds (which Brazilian farmers will use in any event). This is another area where pragmatism has trumped ideology.
The Landless Farmer’s Movement is impatient with slow implementation of promises
Langoni edits a widely read business newsletter and advises companies.
Lula’s personal history is well documented in Denise Parana’s book.An English language review is available on my WEB site.
Brito Alves, A Historia de Lula: O Operario Presidente is a shorter biography.
An illustrated history of the Workers’ Party in English can be found on the WEB site of a foundation established by the party in 1996:
Several books are available on FHC. An updated chapter of mine is on my WEB site. Also an English review of Carlos Micheles’ book