CHAPTER 4.  COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING
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CHAPTER 4. COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA * LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONTRAST MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS

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Learning objectives l.jpg
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS

  • DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED

  • DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA

  • DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA

    *


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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • CONTRAST MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS

  • COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK

  • COMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES

  • ANALYZE TRENDS

    *


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MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

  • WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?: CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE

  • SECONDARY STORAGE

  • INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES

  • TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    *


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CPU

INPUT DEVICES

SECONDARY STORAGE

OUTPUT DEVICES

COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

COMPUTER COMPONENTS

BUSES


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HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED

  • BIT:Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not

  • BYTE:Group of bits for one character

    • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte)

    • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte)

  • PARITY BIT:extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors

    *


Examples of bytes l.jpg

C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1

A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0

T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1

Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number

*

EXAMPLES OF BYTES

EBCDIC ASCII

(assume even-parity system)


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PRIMARY

STORAGE

CPU

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

INPUT

DEVICES

CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS


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ARITHMETIC/LOGIC

UNIT

CLOCK

ROM

RAM

PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

CONTROL UNIT


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ALU & CONTROL UNIT

  • ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT:CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations

  • CONTROL UNIT:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system

    *


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INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

I-CYCLE:

1. FETCH

2. DECODE

3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER

4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER

*


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INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

E-CYCLE:

5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER

6. COMMAND ALU

7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION

8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR

*


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COMPUTER TIME

Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec

Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days

Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years

Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years

*

# PER COMPARED

NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND


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TYPES OF MEMORY

  • RAM:Random Access Memory

    • Dynamic: Changes thru processing

    • Static: Remains constant (power on)

  • ROM:Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)

    • PROM: Program can be changed once

    • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light

    • EEPROM: Electrically erasable

      *


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101

102

103

201

202

203

301

302

303

ADDRESSES IN MEMORY

Each location has an ADDRESS

Each location can hold one BYTE


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MEMORY SIZE

  • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes

  • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes

  • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes

  • TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes

    *


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MICROPROCESSOR

VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU

  • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time

  • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second

  • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices

  • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed

  • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications

    *


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NAME

MICROPROCESSOR

WORD

DATA BUS

CLOCK SPEED

MANUFACTURER

LENGTH

WIDTH

(MHz)

PENTIUM

INTEL

32

64

75 - 200

PENTIUM (MMX)

INTEL

32

64

166 - 233

PENTIUM II

INTEL

32

64

233 - 450

PENTIUM III

INTEL

64

64

500+

PowerPC

MOTOROLA, IBM, APPLE

32

64

100 - 400

ALPHA

DEC

64

64

1000+

EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS


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PENTIUM

PCs

PENTIUM II

HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS

PENTIUM (MMX)

MULTIMEDIA

PENTIUM III

MULTIMEDIA

PowerPC

HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS

ALPHA

COMPAC & DEC WORKSTATIONS

USES OF MICROPROCESSORS

NAME

USE


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Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL


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SECONDARY STORAGE

  • DISK

  • TAPE

  • OPTICAL STORAGE

    *


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DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE

  • HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems

  • RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks

  • FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC

    *


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DISK 1

DISK 2

DISK 3

DISK 4

DISK 5

READ/WRITE

HEADS

CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK)

DISK PACK STORAGE

  • LARGE SYSTEMS

  • RELIABLE STORAGE

  • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA

  • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE

  • TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks

  • CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces

    *


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TRACKS

START

OF

TRACKS

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0

TRACKS AND SECTORS

EACH TRACK HOLDS

SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

SECTOR


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OPTICAL STORAGE

  • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES

    • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light

    • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light

  • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):

    • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable

    • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable

  • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data

    *


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MAGNETIC TAPE

  • STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES

  • SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool)

  • RECORD GROUPS:BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block)

  • GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP

  • RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME

    *

HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3


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MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE

  • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE

  • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS

  • INEXPENSIVE

  • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION

  • CAN BE REUSED

    *


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STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN)

  • HIGH-SPEED NETWORK

  • CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES

    • TAPE LIBRARIES

    • DISK ARRAYS

      *


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INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES

  • POINTING DEVICES

  • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

  • OUTPUT DEVICES

    *


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POINTING DEVICES

  • KEYBOARD

  • MOUSE

    • WIRED

    • INFRA-RED

    • TRACKBALL

    • TOUCH PAD

  • JOYSTICK

  • TOUCH SCREEN

    *


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SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION

  • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format

  • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments

  • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount

    *


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SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

  • PEN-BASED INPUT:Digitizes signature

  • DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form

  • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:Converts spoken word into digital form

  • SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)

    *


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OUTPUT DEVICES

  • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)

  • PRINTER

  • PLOTTER

  • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE

  • MULTIMEDIA

    *


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DATA PROCESSING

  • BATCH PROCESSING:Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.

  • ON-LINE PROCESSING:Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.

    *


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KEYBOARD INPUT

BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS

SORTED TRANSACTION FILE

OLD MASTER FILE

VALIDATE AND UPDATE

NEW MASTER FILE

ERROR REPORTS

REPORTS

BATCH PROCESSING


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TRANSACTIONS

PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE

MASTER FILE

KEYBOARD

IMMEDIATE INPUT

IMMEDIATE PROCESSING

IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE

ON-LINE PROCESSING


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INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA

  • INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA

  • TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION

  • STREAMING TECHNOLOGY

  • MP3: Audio compression standard

    *


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CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS

  • MAINFRAME

  • MIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTER

  • SERVER

  • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)

  • WORKSTATION

  • SUPERCOMPUTER

    *


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MAINFRAME

MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second

  • LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER

  • 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM

  • COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS

  • MASSIVE DATA

  • COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS

    *


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MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER

  • MIDDLE-RANGE

  • 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM

  • UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS

  • USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME

    *


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MICROCOMPUTER

  • DESKTOP OR PORTABLE

  • 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM

  • PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS

  • AFFORDABLE

  • MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS

  • CAN BE NETWORKED

    *


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CLIENT / SERVER

  • NETWORKED COMPUTERS

  • CLIENT:user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have

  • SERVER:component (computer) having desired data, application, communications

    *


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REQUESTS

DATA, SERVICE

CLIENT / SERVER

CLIENT SERVER

USER INTERFACE

APPLICATION

FUNCTION

DATA

APPLICATION FUNCTION

NETWORK RESOURCES


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WORKSTATION

  • DESKTOP COMPUTER

  • POWERFUL GRAPHICS

  • EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES

  • MULTI-TASKING

  • USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)

    *


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SUPERCOMPUTERTERAFLOP:TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND

  • HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED

  • COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS

  • FASTEST CPUs

  • LARGE SIMULATIONS

  • STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS

  • EXPENSIVE

    *


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CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED

  • CENTRALIZED:PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE

    • ONE STANDARD

    • GREATER CONTROL

  • DISTRIBUTED:PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS

    • MORE FLEXIBILITY

    • FASTER RESPONSE

      *


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DOWNSIZING

TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL

  • REDUCES COST

  • SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER

  • COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST

  • COOPERATIVE PROCESSING

    *


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NETWORK COMPUTERS

  • NETWORK COMPUTER:simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server)

  • TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO):total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training)

    *


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TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

  • INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA

  • VIRTUAL REALITY

  • ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB

  • SUPERCHIPS

  • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS

  • MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS

  • SMART CARDS

  • MICROMINIATURIZATION

    *


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© 2001 Laudon & Laudon, Essentials of Management Information Systems 4/e

Connect to the INTERNET

Laudon/Laudon Web site:

http://www.prenhall.com/laudon

Additional Internet Resources related to this chapter:

http://www.intel.com

http://www.dell.com

http://www.apple.com

http://www.ibm.com

http://www.sun.com

http://www.cisco.com

http://www.motorola.com



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