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Introduction to Belief Propagation and its Generalizations. Max Welling Donald Bren School of Information and Computer and Science University of California Irvine. Graphical Models. A ‘marriage’ between probability theory and graph theory. Why probabilities?

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introduction to belief propagation and its generalizations
Introduction to Belief Propagation and its Generalizations.

Max Welling

Donald Bren School

of Information and Computer and Science

University of California Irvine

graphical models
Graphical Models

A ‘marriage’ between probability theory and graph theory

  • Why probabilities?
  • Reasoning with uncertainties, confidence levels
  • Many processes are inherently ‘noisy’ robustness issues
  • Why graphs?
  • Provide necessary structure in large models:
  • - Designing new probabilistic models.
  • - Reading out (conditional) independencies.
  • Inference & optimization:
  • - Dynamical programming
  • - Belief Propagation
types of graphical model
Types of Graphical Model

i

Parents(i)

j

i

Undirected graph

(Markov random field)

Directed graph

(Bayesian network)

factor graphs

interactions

variables

example 1 undirected graph

?

air or water ?

?

high

information

regions

low

information

regions

neighborhood

information

Example 1: Undirected Graph
undirected graphs cont ed
Undirected Graphs (cont’ed)

Nodes encode hidden information

(patch-identity).

They receive local information from the image (brightness, color).

Information is propagated though the graph over its edges.

Edges encode ‘compatibility’ between nodes.

example 2 directed graphs
Example 2: Directed Graphs

computers

TOPICS

war

animals

Iraqi

the

Matlab

inference in graphical models
Inference in Graphical Models
  • Inference:
  • Answer queries about unobserved random variables, given values
  • of observed random variables.
  • More general: compute their joint posterior distribution:
  • Why do we need it?
  • Answer queries : -Given past purchases, in what genre books is a client interested?
  • -Given a noisy image, what was the original image?
  • Learning probabilistic models from examples
  • (expectation maximization, iterative scaling )
  • Optimization problems: min-cut, max-flow, Viterbi, …

learning

inference

Example: P( = sea | image) ?

approximate inference
Approximate Inference

Inference is computationally intractable for large graphs (with cycles).

  • Approximate methods:
  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling.
  • Mean field and more structured variational techniques.
  • Belief Propagation algorithms.
belief propagation on trees

external evidence

message

Compatibilities (interactions)

belief (approximate marginal probability)

Belief Propagation on trees

k

k

Mki

i

k

k

k

j

i

k

k

belief propagation on loopy graphs

external evidence

message

Compatibilities (interactions)

belief (approximate marginal probability)

Belief Propagation on loopy graphs

k

k

Mki

i

k

k

k

j

i

k

k

some facts about bp
Some facts about BP
  • BP is exact on trees.
  • If BP converges it has reached a local minimum of an objective function
  • (the Bethe free energy Yedidia et.al ‘00 , Heskes ’02)often good approximation
  • If it converges, convergence is fast near the fixed point.
  • Many exciting applications:
  • - error correcting decoding (MacKay, Yedidia, McEliece, Frey)
  • - vision (Freeman, Weiss)
  • - bioinformatics (Weiss)
  • - constraint satisfaction problems (Dechter)
  • - game theory (Kearns)
  • - …
bp related algorithms
BP Related Algorithms
  • Convergent alternatives (Welling,Teh’02, Yuille’02, Heskes’03)
  • Expectation Propagation (Minka’01)
  • Convex alternatives (Wainwright’02, Wiegerinck,Heskes’02)
  • Linear Response Propagation (Welling,Teh’02)
  • Generalized Belief Propagation(Yedidia,Freeman,Weiss’01)
  • Survey Propagation (Braunstein,Mezard,Weigt,Zecchina’03)
generalized belief propagation
Generalized Belief Propagation

Idea: To guess the distribution of one of your neighbors, you ask your other neighbors to guess your distribution. Opinions get combined multiplicatively.

GBP

BP

marginal consistency
Marginal Consistency

Solve inference problem

separately on each “patch”,

then stitch them together

using “marginal consistency”.

region graphs yedidia freeman weiss 02
Region Graphs (Yedidia, Freeman, Weiss ’02)

Stitching together solutions on local clusters by enforcing

“marginal consistency” on their intersections.

C=1

C=1

C=1

C=1

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

C=…

Region: collection of interactions & variables.

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