Why the ADDRESS-ing Framework. Goes beyond
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1. Introducing AddressingHays (2001) Model of Addressing Diversity Axis VI – or a Framework for Thinking About Difference / Diversity
2. Why the ADDRESS-ing Framework Goes beyond “how to treat group X” model
Attends to the many complexities of each person’s identity (client’s & therapist’s)
Creates a paradigm for understanding the matrix of diversity and difference
3. Feminist-Multicultural Concepts (Brown, 1994; Kaschak, 1992; Root 1992) Culture may be defined as a framework of values and beliefs, a means to organize experience. It includes the rules by which interpersonal events are perceived. Even private thought is conducted in socially constructed language, and thus, cannot be purely personal and self-contained. The culture of the society in which one is raised and lives defines what can and cannot be conscious or, viewed slightly different, what must remain unconscious. (Kaschak, 1992, p. 30)
4. Multicultural Assessment Model Axis VI (Adopted from Hays, 2001, p. 16) Cultural Influences
Age & generational influences
Religion & spiritual
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Child, Adolescent, Elders
Religious target groups
Ethnic target groups
People of lower status, class,
income, rural or urban
habitat, family name
5. Multicultural Assessment Model (Adopted from Hays, 2001, p. 16) Cultural Influences
Gay, lesbian, bisexual
(legal/illegal), inter. students
Bicultural people (Assess:
language spoken at home)
1st, 1.5 or 2nd generation
1st, 2nd generation in college
or high school
6. Multicultural Assessment Model (Adopted from Hays, 2001, p. 16) If you are a member of more than one group
you have a double, triple,fourfold, jeopardy,
then the additive negative effect of
oppression may manifest in your life,
relationships, and self-perception or you may
have developed resistance to parts or all of
7. What is stands for A – Age related factors. Actual age and age cohort (generation)
D – Disability – visible and invisible disabilities
R – Religion and spirituality
E – Ethnic identity – race, culture (includes people of color as well as Caucasian, white ethnic)
8. What it stands for S – Socioeconomic Status – current and former especially in childhood
S – Sexual orientation – gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, asexual, kinky; and mono – or polygamous
I – Indigenous heritage – First nations peoples
N – National identity – immigrants, refugees, temporary residents, children of the same;
Gender – biological sex, transgender, gender roles and stereotypes
9. What does that all Mean A = Age and generational influencesPeople are not simply the age they are; age in context of personal, cultural, and world hx (also chronological versus developmental age)
People are situated in their age cohort
i.e., baby boomers, depression babies;
Thus we ask “ What does it mean for this person to be this age, in this context, at this time in the world, and to have been other ages at other specific times in the world?”
10. Age and Generational Influences Answering these questions requires a knowledge of hx:
Larger picture (country, world)
11. Developmental & Acquired Disabilities Some are born with disabilities = developmental
Some people loose their temporarily able-bodied status during life = acquired
Being a person with a disability means different things depending on…
12. Developmental Disability Whether it’s developmental or acquired
The cultural, social, & hx contexts in which the person lives
The politics of disability during the person’s lifetime
Impact of disability in functioning and on which domain
Visible or invisible?
13. Disabilities A language piece: Speak of “person with a disability.” The person is not disabled. The person has a disability.
Something to think about: “Is being deaf a disability status? Or a linguistic minority status?
14. R = Religion and spirituality What is the place of religion and spirituality in this person’s life? What is their religious identity?
For some people, religious beliefs also create a culture? i.e., Jehovah’s witness; Islam or in former times Roman Catholicism when religious and political systems are merged
Is this a minority religion or mainstream majority? Has that always been true for this person in her life (i.e., were they born in a Buddhist/Islam majority country and then moved here)?
15. Religion and Identity Is religion or spiritual practice important in this person’s identity?
I.E. in the pacific northwest (where I moved from) many people are unaffiliated with organized religion
This doesn’t mean that spirituality is unimportant however
How has the person’s life/life experience/upbringing be shaped by specific beliefs of their faith or origin…
16. E = Ethnic Identity Ethnicity may include “race” such as African-American, Latina/o, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian
People of self-identified mixed racial heritage (remember: race is a social construct, not all people of mixed backgrounds will self-identify as such)
White ethnicity (WASP, Irish, Italian, Armenian, etc. - Americans
17. Race = Ethnicity?? Race is a social construct
People of different racial groups are, at the level of genes, indistinguishable;
Different societies code race and ethnicity differently; i.e., In America “the one-drop rule” (see handout!)
18. Race “An arbitrary classification system of populations conceived in Europe, using actual or assumed genetic traits to classify populations of the world into a hierarchical order, with Europeans superior to all other” (Christensen, 1989).
19. Race “The myth of human races constitutes one of man’s most damnable masses of misinformation, and…has led to wars, strife, murder and waste of natural resources” (Calloway & Harris, 1977).
20. Race The idea that racial classifications correspond to a reality or collection of characteristics has not been demonstrated (Axelson, 1999)
21. Evidence The human genetic code, or genome, is 99.9 percent identical throughout the world;
22. The Genesis of Race in the US 1444: European Slave Trade Begins
1660’s: Laws passed which prohibited marriage between people of African descent and people of European descent and made all Africans slaves for life.
1863: Emancipation Proclamation
1865: 13 amendment
1978: Most recent racial classification system from US government?
2000: Census offers new choices
23. Socioeconomic Status (SES) Social class: great American invisible variable;
Because of possibility of upward/downward mobility , people in North America can and do change their social class status throughout their lifetimes;
A person has both a social class of origin, and the one they currently occupy, may have passed through others on their way to where they are now
24. Social Class People who changed social class may hide their origins
Social class maybe a combination of:
Attitudes and values
Larger social context
Context in which class is defined
Class X ethnicity equation
25. S= Sexual Orientation Everyone has one
Orientation = the direction of one’s desire. It’s not a lifestyle.
Men’s orientations tend to be more fixed and stable
Women’s orientation tend to be less fixed, more fluid
26. Sexuality People express their orientation in various configurations
The new stigmatized sexual minority (by mainstream and LGB people) – practitioners of kink.
27. I = Indigenous Heritage Indigenous peoples in North America, and in territories currently or formerly under US or European control have been oppressed or made the targets of genocide
Understanding indigenous heritage means a thorough knowledge of the history of the relationship of indigenous to colonizing groups
28. N = National Origin Where someone comes from, and how they or their family got to the US:
Legal or undocumented
When someone’s family came here
In relationship to what attitude towards their particular immigrant group
29. National Origin Issues How long ago s.o.’s family came here
Children/grandchildren of immigrants or refugees may have a different relationship to their national origin issues than those who came centuries ago;
Degree of attachment to country of origin: Was/is the language of origin spoken at home, in worship, in cultural activities? Or was there shame around it? Is home visited or inaccessible?
30. G = Gender Gender is the initial and one of the most powerful organizers of human identity
Transgender in all of its variations
Challenging the binary notions of sex and gender
Gender is NOT the same as biological sex
31. G = Gender Sex = the body, biology
Gender = how does a person enact their relationship to that body and biology
Gender is a social construct which changes with every other ADDRESS-ing variable
32. Assumptions of Hays’ Model People do not have ONE identity
Instead, our identity is constructed of various factors = multiple identities
Aspects of identity have different salience in different social contexts
Observers will construct a person’s identity differently than persons construct themselves…
33. Assumptions of the model Identity will emerge in the dialectical struggle between group memberships and individual sense of self, temperament, and context; identity may construct differently depending upon a person’s reference group; e.g. being “ I am because we are” is a different construction of identity than “I am me.”
34. An example of the complexity of identity construction A person is:
Raised Methodist, now no affiliation
Has Multiple Sclerosis
Upper middle class currently, raised working class; a native English speaker
Forty years old
Has a law degree
35. TBC Keep the thought! We’ll talk about the Address-ing Model assumptions more in detail next week!
Also about the use of the words minority/majority versus TARGET GROUP/ DOMINANT GROUP
For Today: Case Presentation Dr. Schreier
Entry into Personality Disorders
36. References Hays, P. A. (2001). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: A framework for clinicians and counselors. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Brown, L.S. (2004). Class handouts and lecture notes. Argosy University. Seattle. WA.