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Section Outline. Section 24-1. 24–1Reproduction With Cones and Flowers A.Alternation of Generations B.Life Cycle of Gymnosperms 1.Pollen Cones and Seed Cones 2.Pollination 3.Fertilization and Development C.Structure of Flowers 1.Sepals and Petals 2.Stamens and Carpels

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Section outline l.jpg

Section Outline

Section 24-1

  • 24–1Reproduction With Cones and Flowers

    A.Alternation of Generations

    B.Life Cycle of Gymnosperms

    1.Pollen Cones and Seed Cones

    2.Pollination

    3.Fertilization and Development

    C.Structure of Flowers

    1.Sepals and Petals

    2.Stamens and Carpels

    D.Life Cycle of Angiosperms

    E.Pollination

    F.Fertilization in Angiosperms


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Compare/Contrast Table

Section 24-1

Comparing Wind-pollinated and Animal-pollinated Plants

Characteristics

Pollination method

Relative efficiency of pollination method

Plant types

Reproductive organs

Adaptations that promote pollination

Wind-pollinatedPlants

Wind pollination

Less efficient

Mostly gymnosperms and some angiosperms

Cones

Pollination drop

Animal-pollinated Plants

Vector pollination

More efficient

Angiosperms

Flowers

Bright colors, sweet nectar


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Figure 24–4 The Life Cycle of a Gymnosperm

Section 24-1


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Figure 24–5 The Structure of a Flower

Stamen

Carpel

Stigma

Anther

Style

Filament

Ovary

Petal

Ovule

Sepal

Section 24-1


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Figure 24–7 The Life Cycle of an Angiosperm

Pollen grains (N)

(male gametophyte)

Anther (2N)

Stigma

Pollen

tubes

Style

Haploid cell

(N)

Ovary

Embryo sac (N)

(female gametophyte)

Egg cell

Mature

sporophyte

Sperm

Pollen tube

Endosperm nuclei

Endosperm

(3N)

Embryo

(2N)

Seedling (2N)

(new sporophyte)

Endosperm

Zygote

(2N)

Seed coat

Fruit

Section 24-1

Haploid (N)

Diploid (2N)

MEIOSIS

Ovule

FERTILIZATION


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Video

Video

Life Cycle of Angiosperms


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Section Outline

Section 24-2

  • 24–2Seed Development and Germination

    A.Seed and Fruit Development

    B.Seed Dispersal

    1.Dispersal by Animals

    2.Dispersal by Wind and Water

    C.Seed Dormancy

    D.Seed Germination


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Interest Grabber continued

Section 24-3

  • 1. For a gardener, what might be an advantage of growing plants from cuttings rather than from seeds?

  • 2. Herbaceous plants, such as coleus, root faster than do woody plants, such as willow. How would you explain this difference?

  • 3. How would plants grown from cuttings compare to the plant from which the cuttings were taken? Why would this be an advantage for a gardener?


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Section Outline

Section 24-3

  • 24–3Plant Propagation and Agriculture

    A.Vegetative Reproduction

    B.Plant Propagation

    1.Cuttings

    2.Grafting and Budding

    C.Agriculture

    1.Worldwide Patterns of Agriculture

    2.Changes in Agriculture


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Compare/Contrast Table

A length of stem that includes lateral buds is cut from the parent plant and partially buried in soil or rooting mixture to take root.

A piece of stem is cut from the parent plant and attached to another plant.

A piece of lateral bud is cut from the parent plant and attached to another plant.

Section 24-3

Comparing Plant Propagation Methods

MethodProcedure

Cuttings

Grafting

Budding


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Internet

Go Online

  • Links from the authors on genetically designing flowers

  • Interactive test

  • Articles on agriculture

  • For links on seed structure and function, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-7242.


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Section 1 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. What are some ways in which male reproductive cells in pollen might reach female reproductive cells?

  • Possible answers: pollen is carried on the wind, by animals, or by moving water.

  • 2. How does the pollen adhere to the female reproductive structure?

  • The top of the female reproductive structure (stigma) is sticky.

  • 3.Many people experience allergic reactions when pollen grains entertheir respiratory systems. How do you think the pollen reached their bodies?

  • Pollen is carried on the wind; when people inhale, they take in the pollen. People can also get pollen into their bodies by touching first a plant and then their faces.

  • 4.How might people who are allergic to pollen reduce their exposure to it?

  • Students may suggest that people wash their hands after handling plants or stay indoors when the pollen count is high.


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Section 2 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. Name three fruits that you have eaten.

  • Possible answers: apples, strawberries, grapefruit, oranges

  • 2. Describe any seeds you found in the fruits.

  • Small seeds in the apple core, tiny seeds on the outside of berries, large seeds within grapefruit sections, smaller seeds within orange sections

  • 3. What function do you think the fruit and seeds serve for a plant?

  • Fruit attracts animals that spread seeds; seeds allow new plants to grow.


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Section 3 Answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. For a gardener, what might be an advantage of growing plants from cuttings rather than from seeds?

  • Growing plants from cuttings is faster than growing them from seeds. Also, there is no need to shop for seeds.

  • 2. Herbaceous plants, such as coleus, root faster than do woody plants, such as willow. How would you explain this difference?

  • Woody plants grow slowly, so it makes sense that they would develop roots slowly, too.

  • 3. How would plants grown from cuttings compare to the plant from which the cuttings were taken? Why would this be an advantage for a gardener?

  • They would be just like the original plant. This is an advantage if the gardener wants many identical plants.


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End of Custom Shows

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