How to do a literature search
Download
1 / 75

How to do a literature search - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 175 Views
  • Uploaded on

How to do a literature search. Andrew Booth (University of Sheffield) and Mary Dixon-Woods (University of Leicester). This course will cover:. The role of the literature review [10 mins] Types of evidence [5 mins] Formulating answerable questions [10 mins] Sources of evidence [12 mins]

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'How to do a literature search' - Jims


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
How to do a literature search

How to do a literature search

Andrew Booth (University of Sheffield)and Mary Dixon-Woods (University of Leicester)


This course will cover
This course will cover:

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence [12 mins]

  • Search techniques [30 mins]

  • Optimal search strategies [10 mins]

  • Evaluating your literature searching [10 mins]

  • Evaluation [3 mins]


How to do a literature search1
How to do a literature search

  • The role of the literature review


The role of the literature review 1
The role of the literature review - 1

  • Exposes main gaps in knowledge [and] identifies principal areas of dispute and uncertainty (Mays et al, 2001).

  • Helps identifygeneral patterns to findings from multiple examples of research in the same area.

  • Juxtaposing studies with apparently conflicting findings helps explore explanations for discrepancies.


The role of the literature review 2
The role of the literature review - 2

4. Helps define your terminology or identify variations in definitions used by researchers or practitioners.

5. Helps to identify appropriate research methodologies.

6. You can also identify validated scales and instruments.


Case study attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite 1
Case study: Attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite - 1

  • A midwife is researching attitudes of different staff to handwashing. She firstly searches the literature to focus the scope of the original question.

  • Although the literature on handwashing is vast she needs to discover whether published research has been conducted specifically in obstetrics and gynaecology settings. Has anyone researched the topic specifically in a delivery suite?


Case study attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite 2
Case study: Attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite - 2

  • “Handwashing” has many more definitions than she had envisaged.

  • Does handwashing include the use of a handrub? Does it constitute use of water only? What is the minimum duration of the procedure before it is classed as "handwashing"?

  • The literature search enables her to explore different definitions of her main concepts.


Case study attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite 3
Case study: Attitudes of different professions to handwashing in a delivery suite - 3

  • Are there validated instruments to measure attitudes to handwashing (or towards routine hospital hygiene)?

  • The literature review may inform selection of appropriate outcomes - those employed in previous studies (literary warrant) or those considered appropriate by the relevant clinical community (user warrant).

  • Will she focus singly on attitudes or will she investigate knowledge and/or behaviour?



How to do a literature search2
How to do a literature search have identified?

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence


Some types of evidence
Some types of evidence have identified?

  • Prediction – Models, case studies (single and multiple), documentary analysis

  • Historical – documentary analysis, case studies, narratives

  • Intervention – experimental studies

  • Exploration – literature review, theory building, consensus processes

  • Attitudes – psychological research

  • Qualitative - using specific qualitative techniques

  • Causation – observational studies (e.g. case control)



How to do a literature search3
How to do a literature search question?

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions


Formulating answerable questions
Formulating answerable questions question?

  • Translates “Aims” into achievable and focused tasks

  • Helps to distinguish main from subsidiary questions

  • Helps to identify the likely research designs to answer the research question

  • Helps in constructing the literature search


Why? question?

  • "Ask a poor question and you will get a poor review. A clear question also helps the reader rapidly assess whether the review is relevant to his or her own…practice". (Counsell, 1997)

  • Clearly framed questions "guide much of the review process including strategies for locating and selecting studies or data, for critically appraising their relevance and validity, and for analysing variation among their results". (Cochrane Handbook)


Some types of question
Some types of question question?

  • Prediction – What is the likely result of X?

  • Historical – How have we got from A to B?

  • Intervention – Is doing Y better than doing Z?

  • Exploration – What are the possible explanations for A?

  • Attitudes – How do people feel about B?

  • Causation – What are the likely causes of C?

  • Measurement: What is the size of X, how often does it occur etc?

  • Characterisation: how can we understand and specify W?



A structure for formulated questions
A structure for formulated questions question?

Health services research uses PATIENT-INTERVENTION-COMPARISON-OUTCOME(PICO) structure

Within social sciences research the following may be more appropriate:

SETTING

POPULATION

INTERVENTION

COMPARISON

EVALUATION


An example of spice actual phd example
An example of SPICE [Actual PhD example] question?

  • SETTING – UK Marine Conservation

  • POPULATION – public, private and voluntary sector organisations

  • INTERVENTION - partnership approaches

  • COMPARISON – [Unilateral approaches or other countries’ approaches]

  • EVALUATION –achievement of strategic marine conservation objectives


An example of spice actual phd example1
An example of SPICE [Actual PhD example] question?

  • SETTING – UK Television Industry

  • POPULATION – Women

  • INTERVENTION – None

  • COMPARISON – [With men or with other industries]

  • EVALUATION –historical, political, organisational and practical issues


Try one
Try one! question?

  • What is the effect of secondary school headteachers’ leadership and management strategies on student achievement, attitudes, behaviour and recruitment?



Scenario a fistful of doulas
Scenario – A fistful of doulas? your own research question

  • You are working on an ESRC funded project looking at the benefits of a doula (a woman experienced in childbirth who provides continuous physical, emotional, and informational support to the mother before, during and just after childbirth) for low-income mothers.


Our example of spice
Our example of SPICE your own research question

  • SETTING – the Developed World (with comparable health systems to the UK)

  • POPULATION – Low-income mothers

  • INTERVENTION – Doula (Lay support)

  • COMPARISON – Professional support [or No Support]

  • EVALUATION –Perceived levels of social support, birth outcomes, levels of breastfeeding etc.


How to do a literature search4
How to do a literature search your own research question

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence


Stages in the literature search process
Stages in the literature search process your own research question

  • Focus your question

  • Decide on the most appropriate sources

  • Perform a scoping search by:

    • Dividing your search into a series of ‘concepts’

    • Thinking of alternative terms for each concept

    • Searching each concept separately

    • Combining concepts using Boolean logic

    • Limiting your search

  • Revise your search, as necessary, and replicate in other sources


Sources
Sources your own research question

  • Electronic databases:

    • Evidence-based

      • The Cochrane Library, Clinical Evidence, etc.

    • Subject specific

      • ERIC, EconLit, Medline, PsycLit, Cinahl, British Nursing Index, AgeInfo, Biological Abstracts, etc.

    • Related disciplines

      • LISA, ASSIA, British Humanities Index, Web of Science (Science, Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes), etc.


Reflective exercise
Reflective Exercise your own research question

  • Which of the listed databases might be of relevance to this topic?

    [N.B. We are going to search Web of Science and Ovid Medline/CINAHL]


How to do a literature search5
How to do a literature search your own research question

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence [12 mins]

  • Search techniques


From: Etext on Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html


Take Home Message – 1 Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.htmlAn optimal search will combine natural language and controlled vocabulary approaches


Natural language
Natural language Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

  • Uses your own words and searches words & phrases (typically from the title, abstract & keyword fields) to retrieve records

  • Potentially can search any field of a database

  • Can be very precise (but there can be ambiguities e.g. Moderation [exam process] and Moderation [within reasonable limits] )

  • Some problems:

    • Plurals: e.g. child or children

    • Different spellings: e.g. esthetic or aesthetic

    • Different terminology: e.g. pavement or sidewalk

    • Prefixes: prenatal, pre natal, pre-natal


Database features to support natural language
Database features to support natural language Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

  • Truncation (e.g. *, $) used to search for different word stems and word endings

    • e.g. use comput* to find computer, computers, computed, computing, etc. (But comp* would find compost!)

  • Wild cards (e.g. *, ?) used to search for spelling variants

    • e.g. use leuk*mia to find leukaemia or leukemia

  • Proximity and adjacency operators (e.g. adj or near)

    • e.g. motor near2 accidents


Controlled vocabulary
Controlled vocabulary Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

  • Maps variations in terminology to a single “approved” word or phrase (e.g. Toyota, Rolls Royce, Mini, Ferrari etc. all mapped to “Automobiles”)

  • Can demonstrate hierarchical or conceptual relationships (e.g. Europe-UK-England-Hampshire-Southampton)

  • May not exist for new terms (e.g. “single currency”)

  • May not map to a precise term (e.g. “teaching techniques” for “problem based learning”)


Database features to support controlled vocabulary
Database features to support controlled vocabulary Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

  • A Thesaurus (e.g. MeSH, ERIC) [NB. Opposite direction to Roget’s Thesaurus – Many-to-One]

  • Mapping

  • Explode functions

  • “See Under”, “Used For” and “See Also” references


Mapping

Mapping Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

Vocabulary mapping uses statistical analysis to determine which subject headings (index terms) occur most frequently in documents containing your free text query.


Thesaurus
Thesaurus Information Resources. Chapter 4: Searching MEDLINE/PubMed for Health Technology Assessment Information by Viveka Alton and Ione Auston. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ehta/chapter4.html

A controlled vocabulary arranged in a known (e.g. alphabetical or hierarchical) order containing:

  • Preferred terms (keywords)

  • non - preferred terms (synonyms ...)

  • Semantic Relations (Broad Term, Narrow Term, Related Term)

  • Scope notes


What practical problems would you encounter if you used the following search terms
What practical problems would you encounter if you used the following search terms?

  • Postqualifying (2 problems)

  • Labour support (3)

  • PMT (2)

  • Stroke (2)

  • Public school (3)

  • Aids (2)

  • Adolecent (2)


Take Home Message – 2 following search terms?Getting unexpectedly few results can be worse than getting no results at all – “satisfied but inept”!


Explosions following search terms?

broad search

Pregnancy    

Childbirth      

Childbirth, Premature     

Vaginal Birth       

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean   

 Labor      

Cervix Dilatation and Effacement      

Labor Pain     

Labor Presentation     

Labor Stages      

Uterine Contraction

specific

search

exploded


Boolean or
Boolean - OR following search terms?

Use to combine like terms or terms within the same concept

DOULAS

LABOUR

SUPPORT

DOULAS OR LABOUR SUPPORT


Boolean and
Boolean - AND following search terms?

Use to combine together different concepts

CHILDBIRTH

CONTINUOUS SUPPORT

CHILDBIRTH AND CONTINUOUS SUPPORT


Boolean not
Boolean - NOT following search terms?

Use to exclude terms from your search

DOULA

MIDWIFE

DOULA NOT MIDWIFE


Using boolean in your strategy
Using Boolean in your strategy following search terms?

POPULATION

INTERVENTION

EVALUATION

CHILDBIRTH

OR

LABOUR

DOULAS OR LAY SUPPORT

ATTITUDES,

VIEWS,

OPINIONS

AND

AND


x following search terms?

x


Citation searching web of science feature

Citation searching (Web of Science feature) following search terms?

Find a key reference from (at least) last 5-10 years and follow all references that cite it


Other search techniques
Other search techniques following search terms?

  • Reference chaining: Follow up references from reference lists of relevant articles

  • Hand searching: Identify key journals in your field and browse them cover to cover

  • Relevance feedback: Look at subject indexing for a key reference and use to modify your search terms (Also “See Related Records” features)


Related records

Related records following search terms?

EITHER on the basis of frequency of common subject headings (MEDLINE)

OR on the basis of frequency of common citations (Web of Science)


How to do a literature search6
How to do a literature search following search terms?

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence [12 mins]

  • Search techniques [30 mins]

  • Optimal search strategies


What is an optimal search strategy
What is an optimal search strategy? following search terms?

“optimal permutations of search terms found in the titles, abstracts or the subject indexing of relevant articles that have been demonstrated to have a high correlation with study quality”

“pre-prepared search strategies, previously referred to as ‘search filters’, ‘quality filters’, ‘hedges’ or ‘optimal search strategies’… developed (and usually tested) for use with particular databases and/or search interfaces to retrieve specific types of evidence, study design or …information more effectively”


Example 1 qualitative research
Example 1 – Qualitative Research following search terms?

Qualitative Research/ OR

Questionnaires/ OR

exp Attitude/

findings OR

interview$ OR

Interviews/ OR

qualitative


Example 2 user views
Example 2 – User Views following search terms?

Exp Attitude/

Attitude$ OR

(user$ adj view$) OR

opinion$


How to do a literature search7
How to do a literature search following search terms?

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Types of evidence [5 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence [12 mins]

  • Search techniques [30 mins]

  • Optimal search strategies [10 mins]

  • Evaluating your literature searching

  • Evaluation [3 mins]


Evaluating your search strategy
Evaluating your search strategy following search terms?


Take home message 3 judge not by what you have retrieved but by what you may have missed

Take Home Message 3: following search terms?Judge not by what you have retrieved but by what you may have missed!


And finally
And finally … following search terms?

  • Documenting a search

    • Helps to avoid duplication, allows replication in future

    • e.g. date of search, sources searched, no. of hits, details of strategy, etc.

  • Reference management

    • Reference Manager, EndNote, etc.


Sources of help
Sources of help following search terms?

  • Your local University library

  • Database help pages

  • Web-based teaching materials

  • Reading List


How to do a literature search8
How to do a literature search following search terms?

  • The role of the literature review [10 mins]

  • Formulating answerable questions [5 mins]

  • Types of evidence [10 mins]

  • Sources of evidence [12 mins]

  • Search techniques [30 mins]

  • Optimal search strategies [10 mins]

  • Evaluating your literature searching [10 mins]

  • Evaluation


Evaluation
Evaluation following search terms?

  • Identify one thing that you will do when you get back to work as a result of today’s workshop

  • Identify one aspect of today’s workshop that you will need to explore further.


ad